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ART “4” “2”-DAY  05 December
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^ Born on 05 December 1890: David Bomberg, British painter who died on 19 August 1957.
— Son of an immigrant Polish leatherworker. While apprenticed to a lithographer he attended evening classes by Walter Bayes at the City and Guilds Institute and he was assisted by the Jewish Educational Aid Society to study at the Slade School 1911-1913. He was associated with Wyndham Lewis' Vorticist movement (contemporary with Cubism and a precursor to Abstraction) and exhibited in the 'Cubist Room' at the Camden Town Group Exhibition at Brighton, 1913-1914. In 1914 he was a founding member of the London Group and in 1915 he was invited to take part in the Vorticist Exhibition. His best known work from this period is 'The Mud Bath' (1914). In 1919, after declining artistic success, he retired from active participation in the artistic life of the country and worked in isolation. He stayed in Palestine (1923-27) and made trips to Spain, Morocco, Greece and Russia (from 1929 onward). About 1929 he abandoned his abstract style and slowly developed a personal style of expressive brush strokes.
—// From the booklet Russian Ballet (1919): Image 3Image 6Image 2Image 4Image 1Image 5
^ Died on 05 December 1926: Claude Monet, French painter born on 14 November 1840.
—  [Dommage qu'il n'ait pas été auteur dramatique: on aurait eu des pièces de Monet] [A-t-il eu une fille? La petite Monet?] [S'il faisait de l'équitation, son cheval devenait un porte-Monet] [Si sa femme avait fait du théâtre, elle serait devenue la Monet de la pièce. Et on aurait pu accuser ses imitatrices de faire la Monet]
—  Monet, with Pissaro [10 Jul 1830 – 12 Nov 1903], is recognized as being one of the creators of Impressionism, and he was the most convinced and consistent Impressionist of them all. From his earliest days as an artist, he was encouraged to trust his perceptions and the hardships he suffered never deterred him from that pursuit.
      Claude Monet was born in Paris but all his impressions as a child and adolescent were linked with Le Havre, the town to which his family moved about 1845. His father had a grocery store there. In his youth he painted caricature portraits and exhibited them in the art supplies store in which Eugène Boudin worked at the time. Eventually Boudin persuaded the young Monet to paint in the open air with him and become a landscape painter. His family was not against his wish to become a painter, but his independent views, criticism towards academic art and refusal to enter a decent school of art led to constant quarrels with his family. After finishing his military service in Algeria (1860-1861) Monet attended the Académie Suisse and there made the acquaintance of Pissarro and Cézanne [19 Jan 1839 – 22 Oct 1906]. Later, in 1862, he entered the Atelier Gleyre, where he met Bazille [06 Dec 1841 – 28 Nov 1870], Renoir [25 Feb 1841 – 03 Dec 1919] and Sisley [30 Oct 1839 – 29 January 1899]. In 1860s, the young artists frequented the Café Guerbois, a place often visited by Émile Zola and Édouard Manet [23 Jan 1832 – 30 Apr 1883].
      An important turning point in Monet’s artistic career came in 1869, when he and Renoir painted La Grenouillère, a floating restaurant at Bougival. The canvases they produced marked the emergence of a new artistic movement, Impressionism, called so later.
      In 1870, Monet married his model Camille Doncieux (died in 1879), who bore him his son Jean [1868-1914]; in 1879 their second son, Michael, was born. Camille sat for many of Monet's pictures, e.g. The Walkers, Women in the Garden (all four are Camille), The Walk. Lady with a Parasol, La Japonaise, and many others. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871 and a short civil war (Commune) that followed, Monet lived in London and was introduced to Paul Durand-Ruel, a celebrated art dealer, who did much to popularize Impressionist works. In 1874, in an atmosphere of increasing hostility on the part of official artistic circles, Monet and his friends formed a group and exhibited on their own for the first time. One of his works at this exhibition, Impression: Sunrise (Impressions: Soleil Levant), gave its name to the Impressionist movement.
      The following years saw a flourishing of Impressionism. Monet took part in the group’s exhibitions of 1874, 1876, 1877, 1879 and 1882. In those years he created such masterpieces as La Gare Saint-Lazare and Rue Saint-Denis, Festivities of 30 June, 1878. However, his canvases found few buyers. Desperately poor, he constantly looked for places where life was cheaper, and lived at Argenteuil from 1873 to 1878, at Vétheuil from 1879 to 1881, at Poissy in 1882, and at Giverny from 1883 until his death.
      In the late 1880s, his painting began to attract the attention of both the public and critics. Fame brought comfort and even wealth. During that period the artist was absorbed in painting landscapes in series: The Rocks of Belle-Ile (1886), Cliffs at Belle-Ile (1886), Poplars on the Bank of the River Epte (1890), Poplars on the Banks of the Epte (1891), Poplars on the Bank of the River Epte (1891). Light is always the ‘principal person’ in Monet’s landscape, and since he was always aiming at seizing an escaping effect, he adopted a habit of painting the same subject under different conditions of light, at different times of day. In this way he painted a series of views, all of the same subject, but all different in color and lightning.
      In 1890, Monet bought the property at Giverny and began work on the series of haystacks, which he pursued for two years. Monet painted the stacks in sunny and gray weather, in fog and covered with snow: Haystack, Snow Effects, Morning (1890), Haystack. End of the Summer. Morning. (1891), Haystack at the Sunset near Giverny (1891). In 1892 he married Alice Hoschedé (died in 1911) his old friend.
      Monet’s renowned series of the cathedral at Rouen seen under different light effects was painted from a second-floor window above a shop opposite the façade. He made eighteen frontal views. Changing canvases with the light, Monet had followed the hours of the day from early morning with the façade in misty blue shadow, to the afternoon, when the sunset, disappearing behind the buildings of the city, weaves the weathered stone work into a strange fabric of burnt orange and blue: The Rouen Cathedral. Portail. The Albaine Tower. 1893-1894, The Rouen Cathedral at Noon (1894), The Rouen Cathedral (1893-1894), The Rouen Cathedral at Twilight (1894), The Rouen Cathedral in the Evening (1894).
      In 1899, Monet first turned to the subject of water lilies: The White Water Lilies (1899), The Japanese Bridge (1899), Water-Lilies (1914), Water-Lilies (c.1917), Water-Lilies (1917), the main theme of his later work. Fourteen large canvases of his Water lilies series, started in 1916, were bequeathed by him to the State. In 1927, shortly after the artist’s death, these canvases were placed in two oval rooms of the Musée de l’Orangerie in the Tuileries Gardens.
— Claude Oscar Monet was a French impressionist painter who brought the study of the transient effects of natural light to its most refined expression.
      Monet was born in Paris, but he spent most of his childhood in Le Havre. There, in his teens, he studied drawing; he also painted seascapes outside with the French painter Eugène Louis Boudin. By 1859 Monet had committed himself to a career as an artist and began to spend as much time in Paris as possible. During the 1860s he was associated with the preimpressionist painter Édouard Manet, and with other aspiring French painters destined to form the impressionist school — Camille Pissarro, Pierre Auguste Renoir, and Alfred Sisley.
      Working outside, Monet painted simple landscapes and scenes of contemporary middle-class society, and he began to have some success at official exhibitions. As his style developed, however, Monet violated one traditional artistic convention after another in the interest of direct artistic expression. His experiments in rendering outdoor sunlight with a direct, sketchlike application of bright color became more and more daring, and he seemed to cut himself off from the possibility of a successful career as a conventional painter supported by the art establishment.
      In 1874 Monet and his colleagues decided to appeal directly to the public by organizing their own exhibition. They called themselves independents, but the press soon derisively labeled them impressionists because their work seemed sketchy and unfinished (like a first impression) and because one of Monet's paintings had borne the title Impression: Sunrise (1872). Monet's compositions from this time are extremely loosely structured, and the color was applied in strong, distinct strokes as if no reworking of the pigment had been attempted. This technique was calculated to suggest that the artist had indeed captured a spontaneous impression of nature. During the 1870s and 1880s Monet gradually refined this technique, and he made many trips to scenic areas of France, especially the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts, to study the most brilliant effects of light and color possible.
      By the mid-1880s Monet, generally regarded as the leader of the impressionist school, had achieved significant recognition and financial security. Despite the boldness of his color and the extreme simplicity of his compositions, he was recognized as a master of meticulous observation, an artist who sacrificed neither the true complexities of nature nor the intensity of his own feelings. In 1890 he was able to purchase some property in the village of Giverny, not far from Paris, and there he began to construct a water garden (now open to the public)—a lily pond arched with a Japanese bridge and overhung with willows and clumps of bamboo.
      Beginning in 1906, paintings of the pond and the water lilies occupied him for the remainder of his life; they hang in the Orangerie, Paris; the Art Institute of Chicago; and the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. Throughout these years he also worked on his other celebrated “series” paintings, groups of works representing the same subject—haystacks, poplars, Rouen Cathedral, the river Seine—seen in varying light, at different times of the day or seasons of the year. Despite failing eyesight, Monet continued to paint almost up to the time of his death, on 05 December 1926, at Giverny.
— Painter, artist. Initiator, leader, and unswerving advocate of the Impressionist style. In mature works, developed method of producing several studies of the same subject in series, changing canvases with the light or as his interest shifted. These "series" were generally dated and were often exhibited in groups. Moved with his family to Le Havre in 1845. He attended public school in Le Havre and learned to draw from François-Charles Ochard, although the early instruction he received from Eugène Boudin was more critical. In 1859 Monet traveled to Paris where he attended the Académie Suisse and began a friendship with the older Camille Pissarro. He received formal art training in 1863 in the studio of Charles Gleyre, where he met Bazille, Renoir, and Sisley. Despite the acceptance of paintings at the Salons of 1865 and 1866, he suffered severe financial problems.
      In 1873 Monet and other artists in his circle formed the Société Anonyme Coopérative d'Artistes-Peintres-Sculpteurs-Graveurs, which in 1874 held its first group show, later known as the first impressionist exhibition. Monet exhibited Impression: Sunrise, the painting from which the impressionists derived their name. Monet also participated in the second (1876), third (1877), fourth (1879), and seventh (1882) impressionist exhibitions. During his career, Monet painted in a number of locations throughout France as well as in London, Venice, the Low Countries, and Scandinavia. He established studios at Argenteuil (1871), then Vetheuil (1878), and finally Giverny (1883), where he bought a house and property in 1890 and began to concentrate on the famous paintings of his gardens. As Monet grew older, his eyesight deteriorated, but despite his failing vision, he continued to paint until his death. His last years were preoccupied by his grand cycles of water lily paintings.
Direct links to reproductions of 189 paintingsWater Lilies (1916) — Waves Breaking (1881) — Sailboats on the Seine (1874) — The Grand Canal, Venice (1908) — Garden in Bordighera, Impression of MorningImpression: Sunset, Pourville (1882) — Impression: Sunrise (1872)
^ Born on 05 December 1590: Daniel Seghers (or Zeghers), le Jésuite d'Anvers, Flemish painter who died on 02 November 1661.
— Flemish painter, pupil of Jan Brueghel the Elder in Antwerp. He became free master of the Antwerp Guild of Painters in 1614, while at the same time joining the Jesuit Order as a lay brother. He made numerous trips abroad, including Rome. He painted for Prince Frederick Hendrick of Nassau and the Elector of Brandenburg.
Floral Wreath with Madonna and Child (198x80cm) _ Religious flower still-lifes are a special category, first developed by Seghers. While Dutch paintings of flowers, particularly tulips, clearly showed a tendency towards secularization (with noticeable emphasis on the economic and aesthetic value of flowers rather than their religious significance), Seghers tried to recover their spiritual symbolism, in accordance with the counter-reformational aims of the Jesuit order. They are set against dark backgrounds of cartouches or niches in shades of brown, with floral wreaths in glowing colors climbing up like garlands. Instead of being illuminated from outside, the wreaths seem to have a luminosity of their own.
      Seghers generally had the Madonna painted in relief by some artist colleague (in this case by Cornelis Schut and J. van Thielen) before surrounding it with flowers and/or fruit. Thus his pictorial concept served to emphasize its character as a religious object, without any real presence of Mary or Jesus. They were devotional pictures, intended to confirm the practice of church worship, communicated through the illusionist reproduction of the religious object itself. It was not the artist's intention to produce a true-to-life fictitious reality that would enable the believer or viewer to bypass the Church and to enter into devout communication.

Died on a 05 December:

1871 Frederich Wilhelm Keyl, German painter born on 17 August 1823. — At the Blacksmith's Shop
1847 Alexey Gavrilovich Venetsianof, Russian artist born in 1779.
1734 Peter Tillemans (or Tilmans), Flemish artist born in 1684. — LINKS

Born on a 05 December:
1911 Alfred Manessier, French painter who died in 1993. — Tout d'abord influencé par le cubisme et le surréalisme, Manessier s'engage par la suite dans la voie de l'abstraction lyrique mais il se distingue des autres peintres de sa génération (Bazaine, Lapicque, de Staël,...). En Bretagne, il est ainsi surtout connu pour la réalisation de des cartons de vitraux — Le Port Bleu (1948, 114x162cm) _ Ce paysage, composé de formes fragmentées et géométrique aux modulations d'une gamme colorée froide, est l'illustration de la quête spirituelle de l'artiste vers la lumière qui caractérise aussi ses cartons de vitraux.
1885 Sonia (Terk) Delauney, French artist who died in 1979.
1800 James Baker Pyne, British artist who died on 29 July 1870. — Relative? of William Henry Pyne [1769-1843]?
1798 Alexandre-Marie Colin, French artist who died in 1873.
1658 Peeter Bout, Flemish artist who died in 1719.

click for full pictureclick for full picture^ 05 December 2002: Major auction of US art at Christie's in New York.
— The largest ever such auction at Christie's features works by such famous masters as Mary Cassatt, Winslow Homer, Thomas Moran and Andrew Wyeth.
      An incomparable example of Winslow Homer's brilliance with the watercolor medium, Watching Ships, Gloucester [thumbnail >] (1875), is one of the artist's most extraordinary and poignant depictions of children.
     Other sale highlights include Green River, Wyoming (1878), a newly discovered masterwork by Thomas Moran. It is one of the artists earliest interpretations of the Green River and a heroic depiction of the US West.
      In addition to these two remarkable paintings, the auction boasts a comprehensive selection of major works in still life, portraiture, landscape, Impressionism, the Ash-can school, early modernism and sculpture, of which the following links show a few..
Sara in a Large Flowered Hat, Looking Right, Holding Her Dog [< thumbnail] by Mary Cassatt [1845-1926] — Sara Seated, Leaning on Her Left Hand (73x55cm) by Cassatt
Floral Still Life (41x43cm) by Laura Coombs Hills [1859-1952] — Roses (51x61cm) by Abbott Fuller Graves [1859-1936]— Lady Apples in Overturned Basket by William J. McCloskey [1859-1941] — Two Ounces by William Michael Harnett [1848-1892] — The Golden Touch (31x41cm) by Otis Kaye [1885-1974] — Barrels of Money (61x51cm) by Victor Dubreuil [1880-1910] — Five Bobwhites at the Delaware Water Gap (56x69cm) by Titian Ramsey Peale [1799-1885] — George Washington (oval 76x63cm) by Rembrandt Peale [1778-1860] — Fruits of Autumn by James Peale [1749-1831] — Still Life with Liqueur and Fruit by Raphaelle Peale [1774-1825] — Sailing on the Hudson (31x62cm) by Francis Augustus Silva [1835-1886] — Niagara Falls (36x48cm) by Albert Bierstadt [1830-1902] — Landscape View Near Nice by John Singer Sargent [1856-1925] — Venice (36x51cm) by Thomas Moran [1837-1926] — A View of the Doge's Palace by Moran — Icebergs by Moran — Beached for Repairs, Duncan's Point, Gloucester by Fitz Hugh Lane [1804-1865] — Town of St. Nazaire on the Mediterranean by Edward Willis Redfield [1869-1965] (there is indeed a little St. Nazaire 66186, Pyrénées Orientales, WSW of Perpignan, on a bay of the Mediterranean, at 42º34'N 3º00'E. The better known and much larger — population 200'000 — St. Nazaire 44600 is on the Atlantic at 47º17'N 2º12'W, in Loire-Atlantique) — Cardinal's Coach on the Campagna by Sanford Robinson Gifford [1823-1880] — Young Girl by William Merritt Chase [1849-1916] — The Ballet Dancers (The Dressing Room) by Willard Leroy Metcalf [1858-1925]
click for full pictureStudy for ‘The Wounded Drummer Boy’ [< thumbnail] by Eastman Johnson [1824-1906] —
click for full pictureGirl in the Hammock by Winslow Homer [1836-1910] — A Shady Spot, Houghton Farm by Homer
Yacht Dauntless Racing Toward Victory by James Edward Buttersworth [1817-1894] — Clipper in a Heavy Sea by Buttersworth
Gramercy Park (86x112cm) [thumbnail >] by George Wesley Bellows [1882-1925]
Centennial Pilot Boat #7 (56x91cm) by Elisha J. Taylor Baker [1827-1890]
      Elisha J. Taylor Baker, a ship portrait painter, was born in New York City and grew up in Colchester, Connecticut. He went to sea in 1851, but was working as a marine painter from around 1868 to 1880. He traveled throughout New England painting all types of ships, yachts, and steamboats.
     Enough information exists about Baker to tantalize us but not to give a detailed record of his career. He is thought to have traveled to the British Isles in the 1880s. A surviving business card of his lists his occupation as "Marine Painter" and his address as "115 Pearl Street, 104 South Street, NY." Although known primarily as a ship painter, he may also have painted some landscapes. As late as 1979, only twenty-four paintings by Baker had been recorded; eleven others have been attributed to him. He signed his works in several ways, as "E. Taylor Baker;" "E.T. Baker;" or with a monogram of the three conjoined initials of his name.
     Baker died in 1890 in Orange, Connecticut.
     His works are said to be in the collections of the New Bedford Whaling Museum in Massachusetts, the Mariners' Museum in Newport News, Virginia, and the Mystic Seaport Museum in Connecticut [but I find no online art reproduction in any of them].


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