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ART “4” “2”-DAY  10 December
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DEATHS: 1928 MACKINTOSH 1647 UCCELLO
BIRTH: 1685 VAN OSTADE
^ Died on 10 December: 1928 Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Scottish Art Nouveau designer born on 07 June 1868.
— Born in Glasgow, the son of a police superintendent, Mackintosh is the most famous of the Glasgow Style designers and has become something of a cult figure of international importance. He studied at the Glasgow School of Art while being apprenticed to the architect John Hutchinson, transferring to the firm of Honeyman and Keppie in 1889. In 1891 a travelling scholarship enabled him to visit Italy, France and Belgium, and in 1902 he began to paint a series of mystical watercolors. Meanwhile his furniture designs were establishing a repertoire of forms which became the hallmarks of the Glasgow Style and his reputation as an architect was confirmed by his famous designs for Glasgow School of Art (1897-1909). In 1900 he married Margaret MacDonald, who collaborated with him closely and encouraged his painting. Although his work was highly acclaimed abroad, Glasgow proved increasingly restrictive, and in 1914 he left to concentrate on painting in watercolors. He lived in Chelsea until 1923 and thereafter in France.
LINKS
The Harvest Moon (1892) _ Mackintosh was known as a watercolorist as well as an architect and designer. Harvest Moon gives an idea of the mystery and lyricism that characterized the Glasgow style, and the connection to the land of faerie that was part of its inspiration.
The Scottish Musical Review (1896) _ Mackintosh's poster shows the angularity and geometry that distinguished the Glasgow style in poster art from its French counterparts, such as Toulouse-Lautrec. An elongated, possibly winged figure is framed by an abstract halo and supports birds and abstract flowers. The ambiguous subject of this decorative, linear design is typical of the Glasgow artists.
In Fairyland (1897, 37x18cm) — Fairies (1898) — The Wassail (1900, 32x68cm) — Part Seen, Part Imagined (1896) — The Descent of Night (1894)

^ Born on 10 December 1610: Adriaen van Ostade, Dutch painter and engraver who died in 1685.
— Van Ostade may have studied with the Dutch artist Frans Hals and later came under the influence of the great master Rembrandt; Ostade was probably the teacher of the genre painter Jan Steen. Ostade painted many small genre pictures, lively and vigorous and full of subtle effects of light and shade. His subject matter included tavern scenes, peasants drinking and smoking, itinerant musicians, village festivities, and quaint village characters. He also executed 50 etchings depicting peasant life. While his early works are generally filled with rowdy, bawdy characters, his works after around 1650 show more refined and respectable scenes. — Adriaen van Ostade (Adriaen Hendricx) was born in Haarlem. His father, Jan Hendricx, came from Ostade near Eindhoven, and his sons, Adriaen and Isaac, adopted this name as painters. In 1627, Adriaen was a pupil of Frans Hals, and, in 1634 joined the Lukas Guild in Haarlem of which he was later the head, in 1647, 1661 and 1662.
     He was one of the most popular Dutch painters, specializing from the start in genre painting of peasant life. In his early period, A. van Ostade was under the influence of A. Brouwer, in the 1640s of Rembrandt. From about 1650 his paintings turned more and more towards Delft genre painting, the interiors became more pleasant, and open-air scenes were added.
     A. van Ostade had many pupils and followers, the most important among them were his younger brother, Isack,  Jan Steen, Cornelis Dusart, and Cornelis Pietersz Bega. The artist died in Haarlem.
LINKS
Dancing CoupleLandscape with an Old Oak (1640) — Peasants in an Interior (The Skaters) (1650) — Peasants in an Interior (1661) — The Fishwife (1673) — The Merry Peasant (1640) — The Painter's Studio (1640) — The Pall-Mall Court (1677) — 59 Engravings at FAMSF

Drunkards in a Tavern (42x57cm) _ detail _ enlarged detail
De Drinker: Three boors drinking and smoking in a spirit house (29x23cm) _ This painting and its former pendant, A man and a woman drinking at a table, were for long regarded as two of the finest of Adriaen van Ostade. The pendant is dated 1661, placing the pair during the zenith of Ostade's career, at a time when his work combines the mature development of style and subject matter with the vivacity and charm of which he was at his best possessed. In the present painting this is reflected in the sympathy of interpretation, subtlety of palette and fineness of detail for which Ostade is so admired.
      Ostade was one of the foremost genre painters of seventeenth-century Holland, recorded as having started his career as a pupil of Frans Hals in Haarlem, concurrently with Adriaen Brouwer. It was from these two artists, and from Brouwer in particular, that Van Ostade first developed his themes of parties of smoking, drinking and dancing peasants in their village surroundings. He initially adopted a satirical, almost caricatured, manner, but from the 1640s onwards began to endow his low-life protagonists with increasing degrees of restraint and dignity, his palette becoming richer and his chiaroscuro stronger.
      Although such works are more prevalent from the 1640s, from relatively early in his career Van Ostade had painted scenes of tranquil domestic comfort (for example the Village Alehouse with Four Figures of 1635). In them, the action is less important than the depiction of a psychological state, and the setting gains in significance. In the course of the 1640s, however, Ostade increasingly began to explore that approach to the theme, thereby moving further away from Brouwer's influence towards a fully mature, personal style. His interiors became more spacious, flat-ceilinged and better furnished, whilst the figures and their costumes, as well as the furnishings and utensils attendant on peasant life, are shown in more detail, for example the Three Peasants at an Inn of 1647.
      Through the 1650s and by the date of the present work, scenes of excessive drinking and gambling became the exception rather than the rule. Ostade's peasants are mostly shown relishing the small pleasures permitted by their modest existence. This shift is accompanied by a change in the implicit meaning of the pictures: thus in place of, or alongside, the traditional satire on human frailty, the simplicity of peasant life is held up as a model or even idealized. In addition, his interiors continue to show an increasing emphasis on detail, whilst, as in the present work, the strong local coloring of the figures stands out powerfully from the tonal twilight of the interior setting.

^ Died on 10 December 1475: Paolo “Uccello” di Dono, Italian painter born in 1397. — [uccel di bosco?]
LINKS
Five Portraits (1450, 43x210cm) _ This painting, attributed to Paolo Uccello, portrays five famous men, Giotto (representing painting), Uccello (representing the principles of perspective and animal painting), Donatello (representing sculpture), Manetti (representing mathematics), and Brunelleschi (representing architecture). _ detail _ This detail is supposed to be a self-portrait of Uccello.
The Battle of San Romano [ Left _ Center _ Right _ Panel] _ The three paintings of the Battle of San Romano are universally attributed to Paolo Uccello. The three scenes are: Niccol˛ da Tolentino Leads the Florentine Troops, London, National Gallery; Bernardino della Ciarda Thrown Off His Horse, Florence, Uffizi; Micheletto da Cotignola Engages in Battle, Paris, Louvre. Together with the stories from the life of Noah these are undoubtedly Uccello's most famous works.
      In all three panels the battle scene is interpreted in terms of a chaotic mêlée of horsemen, lances and horses in a desperate struggle, portrayed through an endless series of superimposed and intersecting perspective planes. As in the stories from the life of Noah in Santa Maria Novella, here too the movement which should animate the scenes appears to be frozen, as it were, by the isolation of the individual details, all realistically portrayed. See, for instance, the elaborate heavy armour, the leather saddles, the gilded studs, the horses' shiny coats, and of course the splendid "mazzocchi', the huge multifaceted headgear that Uccello often included in his pictures due to the specific difficulty of painting it in proper perspective.
      The three panels commemorate the celebrated Battle of San Romano in which the Florentines, under the leadership of Niccol˛ da Tolentino, defeated the Sienese led by Bernardino della Ciarda. They were intended as decoration for the large hall on the ground floor of the Medici Palace, called Lorenzo's room.
      The three incidents from the Battle of San Romano shown are:
      Left: Niccol˛ da Tolentino Leads the Florentine Troops _ detail
      Center: Bernardino della Ciarda Thrown Off His Horse _ This is the central panel of the three paintings representing the battle won by Florence against Siena allied with Visconti, the ruling family of Milan. It took place on June 1st 1432 in San Romano, half way between Florence and Pisa. The picture shows the conclusive combat between the captains of the two armies: Niccol˛ da Tolentino unseating Bernardino della Ciarda.
      Uccello's obsession with displaying his mastery of perspective (such as the long white and red lances or the exceptional horses that have rolled over on the ground) and the dramatic nature of the clash between the knights combine with his almost magical story telling. This is underpinned by the use of unreal colors and light as if describing some fabulous tale of chivalrous adventure. _ detail 1 _ detail 2 _ Particularly lovely are the background landscapes, especially in this panel, with scenes of grape harvesting and hunting. _ detail 3
      Right : Micheletto da Cotignola Engages in Battle _ In this panel there is a formal subtext created by strong decorative elements, such as the tights of contrasting colors worm by the soldiers on the left, or the arrangement of the lances, which form a series of patterns and movements that echo the horses and their riders. As could be expected, foreshortening and perspective are devices favored by the artist. The landscape has been sacrificed to the action of the figures. _ detail

Died on a 10 December:
1925 Georges Jeaunin, French artist born in 1841.
1910 Seymour Joseph Guy, British artist born on 16 January 1824. — LINKS
1897 Benito MercadÚ y Fßbregas, pintor espa˝ol.
1880 Theodor Leopold Weller, German artist born on 28 May 1802.
1859 (or 11 Dec) Alexandre Louise Marie Richard, French artist born on 24 or 25 November 1782.
1823 Jacques Franšois JosÚ Schwebach Desfontaines, French artist born on 19 March 1769.
1763 George van der Myn, Dutch artist born in 1723, 1725, or 1728 — Relative? of Frans van der Mijn (or Myn) [1719-1783] ?
1761 Johann Georg Platzer (or Plazer), Austrian artist born on 25 June 1704. — LINKS
1630 or 1631 Orazio Riminaldi, Italian artist born in 1586.

Born on a 10 December:
1867 Ker-Xavier Roussel, French Nabi painter who died on 06 June 1944 (D-Day). — LINKS
1859 Peder Mark Mønsted, Danish painter who died in 1941. He studied at the Academy in Copenhagen and became one of the most accomplished Danish landscape painters at the end of the nineteenth century. He traveled widely in Italy, Switzerland, and France and exhibited his landscapes regularly at Charlottenborg. — LINKSCalm Waters (1908, 70x100cm) — The forest path (52x72cm) — In the outskirts of Cairo (1893, 40x55cm) — Athenian Ruins (1893 70x130cm) — Bollemosen (1899, 64x104cm) — Feeding The Calf (1931, 70x101cm) — Lindenborg Kro 1931, 41x62cm) — A Woodland Stream (1923, 89x134cm) — Waterlilies (1920 34x57cm) — A Boat Moored On A Quiet Lake (1919, 72x98cm) — On The Snowy Path (1918, 96x140cm) — Fishing Boats on the Water, Cap Martin (1907, 70x100cm) — Fishing on Lac Leman (1887, 92x69cm) — Unloading Stone from a Barge at Ouchy (1887) — Montagne Picota (1892, 16x22cm)
1847 Andrea Landini, Italian artist who died in 1912.
1815 Francesco Bergamini, Italian artist who died on 30 November 1883.
1807 Niels Simonsen, Danish artist who died on 11 December 1885.
1805 Karl Ferdinand Sohn, German artist who died on 25 November 1867.
1748 Michel Joseph Speckaert, Belgian artist who died on 17 September 1838.
1613 Isaack van Oosten, Flemish artist who died in 1661.

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