on 09 February 1819: Johan Barthold Jongkind,
Dutch Realist painter and printmaker who died on 09 February 1891.
Jongkind's small, informal landscapes continued the tradition of the Dutch landscapists while also stimulating the development of Impressionism.
Originaire de Latrop, aux Pays-Bas, Johan Barthold Jongkind fit sortir l'art néérlandais de son provincialisme idyllique et devint du même coup l'un des plus notables précurseurs de l'évolution européenne ultérieure. Elève d'Andreas Schelfhout à La Haye et d'Isabey à Paris, il se fixa de 1855 à 1860 à Rotterdam, mais passa ensuite les trente dernières années de sa vie a Paris. Ses premières oeuvres hollandaises surtout les représentations fluviales et marines se distinguent cependant déjà par une atmosphère étonnamment transparente et un haut degré de luminosité. Créée en 1856, la toile intitulée Le Port de Rotterdam semble avoir pour sujet réel les teintes vaporeuses suspendues entre les objets, ainsi que les reflets de l'eau. Le coloriage de Jongkind obéissait encore aux règles de la cohésion tonale, mais dans la luminosité de ses atmosphères l'artiste dépassait jusqu'aux Français les plus hardis. A quel point il était attaché a l'inspiration puisée aux mille aspects de la nature vivante ressort aussi du fait qu'il aimait peindre et repeindre le même motif sous un éclairage different. Né exactement la même année que Colbert, et à peu près contemporain des principaux pleinairistes de l'école de Barbizon, Jongkind allait devenir, a côté de Boudin, l'un des plus grands promoteurs de l'impressionisme. Il n'a pas seulement enthousiasmé Manet, mais aussi comme pas un autre confirmé Monet dans son esthétique. Jongkind est mort à Côte-Saint-André, France.
Le Pont de la Tournelle (1859) Clair de Lune (1853) Harbor Scene (1865, 14x23cm Sortie du Port de Honfleur (1864) La Jetée en bois dans le..., (1865) Moulins en Hollande (1867) Vue du Port à Chemin de Fer à Honfleur (1866, eau-forte 27x34cm) Cahier de 7 Eaux-Fortes - vues... Cahier de 7 Eaux-Fortes - vues... The Seine and Notre-Dame à Paris (1864) In Holland; Boats near the Mill (1868) The Church of Overschie Honfleur (1865, 52x82cm) _ This canvas was painted in August–September 1865, during Jongkind's third visit to Honfleur, on the Normandy coast, where Monet also worked in the early and mid-1860s.
Died on 03 June 1679: Jean-François
Francisque Millet (or Millé), French painter
born on 27 April 1642. Not to be confused with the better known
Millet [04 Oct 1814 20 Jan 1875]
Jean François Millet, called Francisque, worked in Paris from 1659, painting landscapes in the style of Gaspard Dughet. He was received into the French Academy in Paris in 1763, after having worked in the Low Countries and in England. He can lay claim to being the best interpreter of Nicolas Poussin's classical landscapes, retaining the formality and dignity of his models without loss of subtlety. Like those of Gaspard Dughet, his pictures are largely attributions on purely stylistic grounds, there being no sure documentation. He had relatives of the same name, and it is not clear what is by him. Three etchings are also now attributed to him.
Imaginary Landscape (1665, 57x66cm) _ Under Louis XIV, the two main landscape painter of the time were Pierre Patel and Francisque Millet. They were largely derivative in their styles, but this was the secret of their success. Both of them are relatively little known today. Francisque Millet was more talented than Patel, though his present reputation is also obscure. Flemish in origin like Philippe de Champaigne, he worked mainly in Paris, specializing in classical landscapes inspired by the works of Dughet and Poussin. Millet had imagination and good powers of observation, but he never painted anything without a classical format. Millet preferred an intense blue for his landscapes (as did Poussin), which gives then an unnatural air. The ideal landscape in Budapest characterizes well the style of this French painter of Flemish origin.
on 03 June (January?) 1887: August Macke, German
expresssionist painter who died on 26 September 1914 [It is not
true that he was run over by a Mack truck.].
August Macke was born in Meschede, Germany, and during his childhood he spent time in Basle where he came into contact with the work of Böcklin (1827 16 Jan 1901). He was taught by Corinth (21 Aug 1858 1925), and travelled widely throughout Europe. He married the beautiful Elisabeth Gerhardt in 1909. He met Franz Marc (08 Feb 1880 04 Mar 1916) in 1910 in Munich, and with him established the Blaue Reiter the following year. In 1912 they both journeyed to Paris, where they discovered Cubism and the work of Delaunay (12 Apr 1885 25 Oct 1941). In 1914 he visited North Africa with Paul Klee (18 Dec 1879 29 Jun 1940). Macke was killed in battle, at the age of 27, that same year in the stupid World War I. His early Impressionist style developed into a use of strong, sunlit color applied in painterly facets of light. His preferred subject matter remained urban scenes of shopping and leisure. His North African work had a more structured appearance, and in 1913 he experimented with pure abstraction and also produced many watercolors.
Upon Macke's death, Franz Marc, who was later to also be killed in the same hellish war, wrote him this obituary: August Macke- "Young Macke"- is dead. Those who have followed the course of German art during these last, eventful years, those who sensed what the future held in store for the development of that art, also knew Macke. And those of us who worked with him- we, his friends, we knew what promise this man of genius secretly bore in him. His life described one of the boldest and most beautiful curves in the development of German art; and with his death that curve has been rudely broken. There is not one among us who can take it further. Each of us goes his own way; wherever our paths meet, we shall feel his absence. We painters know that without his harmonies whole octaves of color will disappear from German art, and the sounds of the colors remaining will become duller and sharper. He gave a brighter and purer sound to color than any of us; he gave it the clarity and brightness of his whole being.
Selbstbildnis (1906) Selbstporträt mit Hut (1909) Four Women in the Forest Three Girls in a Barque (1911) Garden Gate (1914) Hat Shop (1914) Girls and Trees (1914) Lady in the Green Coat (1913) Lady in a Green Jacket Tegernseer Bauernjunge (1910) Der Sturm (1911) Elisabeth Gerhardt Nähend (1909) Frau des Künstlers mit Hut (1909) Porträt mit Äpfeln: Frau des Künstlers (1909) Bildnis Franz Marc (1910) Der Mackesche Garten in Bonn (1911) Farewell Man Reading in the Park
Died on 03 June 1592: Bartolomeo
Passerotti (or Passarotti, Passarotto), Bolognese painter
born on 28 June 1529.
Except for some years in Rome (about 1551 to. 1565) Passerotti worked in his native Bologna. There he had a large studio, which became the focal point of the city's artistic life. He was a pupil of Girolamo Vignola and Taddeo Zuccaro (or Zuccari), in Rome. Here, he also came into contact with the works of Correggio and Parmigianino.
The religious paintings that were the basis of his success were fairly conventional and undistinguished, and he is now remembered for his pioneering genre scenes of butchers' shops. They reflect the influence of northern painters such as Aertsen and in their lively observations broke free from prevailing Mannerism. Annibale Carracci (whose brother Agostino Carracci studied with Passarotti) was influenced by these genre scenes in his early career. In addition to his religious and genre works, Passarotti painted excellent portraits throughout his career. His son Tiburzio (d. c. 1612) imitated his style, and he in turn had two artist sons, Gaspare and Archangelo.
Holy Family with the Infant St John the Baptist and St Catherine of Alexandria (111x92cm) _ The composition follows the example of Raphael, but there are some details characteristic for Passerotti, e.g. the hand of St Catherine and the portrait-like position of St Joseph.
The Butcher's Shop (1580, 112x152cm) _ This and The Fishmonger's Shop were originally part of a series of four. The dating of the pictures, considered to rank among the best examples of Italian genre painting, oscillates between 1578-80 and 1585-90. There are close stylistic connections between these canvases and the works of the Dutch masters Aertsen and Beuckelaer, as well as with The Butcher's Shop by Annibale Carracci (now at Oxford).
Passerotti describes the butcher's shop with a combination of realistic precision in the rendering of details and irony in the characterization of the people. In late sixteenth century art the theme of the butcher shop was moralistically interpreted as an allegorical warning about the temptations of flesh and of indulgence in erotic passions without caution. According to the counter-reformation precepts laid down by Gabriele Paleotti (1582), veiled moral messages could be transmitted through comical pictures. In both pictures the sparrow appears: as this bird's Italian name is the passerotto, the artist used it as a type of pictorial signature.
The Fishmonger's Shop (1585, 112x152cm) _ This painting is rich with the most minute naturalistic description, with the woman holding up the blowfish and with various types of sea shells on display reflecting Passerotti's interest in naturalistic study. A participant in the scientific culture of Bologna, of which Ulisse Aldovrandi was a protagonist, Passerotti created his own varied collection of curiosities and monstrosities.