| On a December 17:
2000 Después de una dura batalla legal frente a su oponente demócrata Al Gore, el candidato republicano George W. Bush es finalmente proclamado vencedor de las elecciones a la presidencia de los Estados Unidos.
1999 La secretaria de Estado norteamericana, Madeleine Albrigth, y el canciller alemán, Gerhard Schröder, avalan el acuerdo marco por el que Alemania indemnizará a centenares de miles de personas forzadas a trabajar al servicio del Tercer Reich.
1998 Los lores ingleses, que el pasado mes de noviembre sentenciaron que el ex dictador chileno Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte carecía de inmunidad frente al proceso judicial abierto contra él, deciden anular dicha decisión y dejar el asunto en manos de un nuevo tribunal formado por otros cinco jueces.
1997 El FMI (Fondo Monetario Internacional) aprueba la creación de un nuevo mecanismo denominado "Facilidad de Reserva Suplementaria", para ayudar a países con problemas financieros.
1992 Deportación de 400 palestinos de Israel al sur del Líbano, tras el asesinato del sargento Toledano por los terroristas de Hamas.
| 1989 El PP (Partido Popular) consigue 38 escaños, exactamente
la mayoría absoluta, en las elecciones al Parlamento de Galicia, mientras
que el PSOE gallego logra 27.
1989 El conservador Fernando Collor de Mello gana las elecciones presidenciales en Brasil.
1987 Gustav Husák, presidente checo, es relevado, a petición propia, de la secretaría general del partido comunista. Le sustituye Milos Jakes.
1981 Red Brigade terrorists kidnap Brigadier General James L. Dozier, the highest-ranking US NATO officer in Italy.
1979 El novelista español Jesús Fernández Santos recibe el Premio Nacional de Novela por su obra Extramuros.
1979 Se produce la fuga de la prisión de Zaragoza de cinco máximos responsables de los GRAPO (Grupos de Resistencia Antifascista Primero de Octubre): Fernando Hierro Chomón, Enrique Cerdán Calixto, Abelardo Collazo Araujo, Juan Martín Luna y Francisco Brotons Beneyto.
1979 Se reúne en Venezuela la OPEP (Organización de Paises Exportadores de Petroleo) con la intención de unificar el precio del barril de petróleo en 24 dólares.
1979 Budweiser rocket car reaches 1190 km/h (record for wheeled vehicle)
1978 Referendum approves new constitution of Rwanda
1975 John Paul Stevens appointed to the Supreme Court
1975 Lynette Fromme was sentenced to life for attempt on President Ford's life.
1974 El general Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte es nombrado Presidente (dictador) de la República de Chile.
1972 New line of control agreed to in Kashmir between India and Pakistan
1971 Cease-fire between India and Pakistan in Kashmir
1969 USAF closes Project Blue Book, concluding no evidence of
extraterrestrial spaceships behind thousands of UFO sightings.
1969 La Cámara de los Comunes aprueba una ley por la que queda abolida la pena de muerte en el Reino Unido.
1965 Ending an election campaign marked by bitterness and violence, Ferdinand Marcos is declared president of the Philippines.
1965 Largest newspaper--Sunday New York Times at 946 pages ($0.50)
1962 Constitution of Monaco promulgated
1952 Yugoslavia breaks relations with the Vatican.
1950 Marshal de Lattre de Tassigny appointed to command the French troops in Vietnam.
1949 Birmania reconoce la República Popular de China. Se trata del primer país no comunista que lo hace.
1949 The Czechoslovakian bishops declare that the Communist government's 01 November 1949 law repressing religion is in contradiction to the law of God.
1948 La ONU rechaza la moción de admisión de Israel.
1944 Japanese-Americans released from detention camps
1944 The German Army renews the attack on the Belgian town of Losheimergraben against the defending Americans during the Battle of the Bulge.
1943 US forces invade Japanese-held New Britain Island in New Guinea. Morotai: Stepping stone to the Philippines.
1941 German troops led by Rommel begin retreating in North Africa
1938 Italy declares the 1935 pact with France invalid, because ratifications had not been exchanged. France denies the argument.
1927 US Secretary of State Kellogg suggests a worldwide pact renouncing war..
1925 Colonel William "Billy" Mitchell court-martial for insubordination
1920 British Empire receives League of Nations mandate to Nauru
1920 Japan receives League of Nations mandate over Pacific islands
1920 South Africa receives League of Nations mandate over SW Africa
1912 Empiezan en Londres las negociaciones de paz sobre la guerra de los Balcanes.
First prize of 100'000 francs is offered for communications with
extraterrestrials. Martians excluded--considered too easy.
1898 Harper's Weekly publishes this cartoon by Henry Brevoort Eddy [>] about the annexation of Hawaii by the US.
1885 España y Alemania firman el protocolo que pone fin al litigio sobre las islas Carolinas.
1875 Violent bread riots in Montreal.
1862 General US Grant issues order #11, expelling Jews from Tennessee.
1862 Grant expels the Jews.
Union General Ulysses S. Grant lashes out at cotton speculators when he expels all Jews from his department in the west. At the time, Grant was trying to capture Vicksburg, Mississippi, the last major Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River. Grant's army now effectively controlled much territory in western Tennessee, northern Mississippi, and parts of Kentucky and Arkansas. As in other parts of the South, Grant was dealing with thousands of escaped slaves. John Eaton, a chaplain, devised a program through which the freed slaves picked cotton from abandoned fields and received part of the proceeds when it was sold by the government.
Grant also had to deal with numerous speculators who followed his army in search of cotton. Cotton supplies were very short in the North, and these speculators could buy bales in the captured territories and sell it quickly for a good profit. In December, Grant's father arrived for a visit with two friends from Cincinnati. Grant soon realized that the friends, who were Jews, were speculators hoping to gain access to captured cotton. Grant was furious and fired off his notorious Order No. 11: "The Jews, as a class violating every regulation of trade established by the Treasury Department and also department orders, are hereby expelled from the department within twenty-four hours from receipt of this order."
The fallout from his action was swift. Among 30 Jewish families expelled from Paducah, Kentucky, was Cesar Kaskel, who rallied support in Congress against the order. Shortly after the uproar, President Lincoln ordered Grant to rescind the order. Grant later admitted to his wife that the criticism of his hasty action was well deserved. As Julia Grant put it, the general had no right to make an order against any special sect.
1861 The Stonewall Brigade begins to dismantle Dam No. 5 of the C&O Canal.
1821 Kentucky abolishes debtors prisons
1819 Congress of Angostura establishes Columbia's independence from Spain Se proclama la República de la Gran Colombia, que abarcaba los territorios de las posteriores Colombia y Venezuela.
1798 1st impeachment trial against a US senator (Wm Blount, TN) begins
1791 NYC traffic regulation creates 1st 1-way street
1790 Aztec calendar stone discovered in Mexico City
1777 France recognizes independence of English colonies in America.
1617 Felipe III publica en Madrid una real cédula por la que divide la gobernación del Paraguay en dos: la del Guairá y la de Buenos Aires o Río de la Plata.
1571 Comienza en Salamanca el proceso de la Inquisición contra fray Luis de León.
1559 Matthew Parker is made Archbishop of Canterbury and supports Reformation under Elizabeth I of England. On the legitimacy of his consecration supposedly hangs the validity of Anglicanism. In implementing Elizabeth's policies, he was harsh with Puritans and other dissenters.
1538 Pope Paul III excommunicates England's King Henry VIII.
1500 Cristóbal Colón es recibido por los Reyes Católicos tras regresar de América cargado de cadenas y recupera la confianza del regio matrimonio.
1399 Tamerlane's Mongols destroy army of Mahmud Tughluk, Sultan of Delhi, at Panipat.
0283 St Gaius begins his reign as Pope
| Deaths which occurred on a December
2001 Pvt. James Carl Rogers, from Swansea, South Wales, serving with the Royal Regiment of Wales, based on a peacekeeping mission in Pristina, Kosovo, since mid-November 2001, shot once in the head by his own weapon, apparently by accident.
2001 Mohammad Jamaan Hanidak, 13, shot in the chest by Israeli troops in Khan Younis, Gaza Strip, while standing outside his house holding a plastic toy rifle. Mahmoud Fadel Hanidak, 12, is also shot and, taken to the hospital, is declared clinically dead.
2001 Munjed Mohammad Khaled Salaman, 22, and Muntasar Abu Mustafa, 18, shot at about noon by an Israeli tank stationed at the entrance of the Rafidiah neighborhood in Nablus, while they were standing at a phone booth. They were both members of the PA's naval police force which also conducts operations in the landlocked West Bank and that they were patrolling the area in order to keep Palestinian gunmen from approaching or opening fire on Israeli troops.
2001 Yakub Idkidakh, 28, a senior activist in Hamas's military wing (name reported as Yaaqoub Fathi Dkedik by Wafa Palestinian news agency). Israeli soldiers come to his house in the Palestinian-controlled portion of Hebron early in the morning to arrest him, but shoot him when he tries to flee. Israelis say that Idkidakh was involved in planning both ordinary and suicide bombings, both in Israel and in the territories. Hamas vows to avenge his death despite Arafat's call to cease terrorist operations.
2001 Two guards and two passers-by, at the Port-au-Prince National Palace, as a commando attacks it in an apparent failed coup attempt.
2000: 3 children, 2 women, and 6 men, by gunmen in Chipaque, 16 km south of Bogotá. According to the government, the gunmen are rebels of the "Revolutionary Armed Forces" of Colombia. Right-wing paramilitary gunmen have also committed numerous civilian massacres. During the first eight months of 2000, 1,389 people were slain in 314 massacres in Colombia, according to human rights monitors.
2000 Chu Congrui, 30, her death is notified by police to her family in Tiande (Jilin province, China), who find bruises on her body and blood around her ears, signs that she had died from severe police beatings. She was under arrest since 1 December for participating in a Falun Gong protest on Tiananmen Square.
2000 Luis Claramunt, pintor español.
1987 Bernard Cardinal Alfrink, 87, cardinal of Ultrecht Netherlands
1987 Marguerite Yourcenard, 84, author (Memoirs of Hadrien)
1950 At least 44 shipyard workers as Polish soldiers, on orders from defense minister General Wojciech Jaruzelski, shoot into crowd protesting food-price increases, in the Baltic coast cities of Gdynia, Gdansk, Szczecin and Elblag. More than 1000 are injured. Jaruzelski would be Poland's communist ruler from 1981 until the regime's demise in 1989. In November 2001 Jaruzelski, now 78, would be tried in a Warsaw court for the massacre.
1940 Stott, mathematician.
1939 German pocket battleship Graf Spee scuttled by its crew off Uruguay
1927 All 34 aboard US sub 'S-4' as it sinks after collision.
1909 Leopold II king of the Belgians.
1907 William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), 83, mathematician. físico británico, uno de los fundadores de la termodinámica y precursor de la teoría electromagnética.
1853 Anstice, mathematician.
1830 Simon Bolivar, 47, hero of independence from Spain, president of Colombia. general, dirigente de la independencia de las Repúblicas de Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia y Panamá, muere en los alrededores de Santa Marta (Venezuela).
1813 Antoine Auguste Parmentier, farmacéutico francés, impulsor del consumo de la patata.
1806 Thomas Beach, British artist born in 1738. LINKS The Hand That Was Not Called
1794 François Nicolas Vincent, político francés.
1765 Ercole Graziani II, Italian artist born in 1688
1686 Liéve Pieterszoon Verschuur (or Verschuir), Dutch artist born in 1630.
| Births which occurred on
a December 17:
1970 Benedictine [St Bernard]; becomes heaviest known dog (137 kg)
1946 Eugene Levy Hamilton Canada, comedian/writer (SCTV)
1944 Jack Chalker US, writer (Charon: A Dragon at the Gate)
1940 Adolfo Canepa, político, abogado y matemático británico.
1938 Tala, de Gabriela Mistral, se publica.
1910 Joaquín Pérez Villanueva, historiador español.
1908 Willard Frank Libby, US chemist who won a Nobel Prize (1960) for his part in creating the carbon-14 method of dating ancient findings.
1903 Erskine Caldwell, US author (Tobacco Road, God's Little Acre)
1900 Cartwright, mathematician.
1898 Efraim Martínez, pintor colombiano.
1895 Anti-Saloon League of America formed, Washington, DC
1881 Jan Sluyters, Dutch artist who died is 1957. Relative? of Georges de Feure [1868-1928] also known as: Georges Joseph van Sluyters?
1875 Henri Émilien Rousseau, French artist who died on 28 March 1933. Not to be confused with le Douanier Henri Rousseau [1844-1910]
1874 William Lyon Mackenzie King (L), 10th Canadian PM (1921-30, 1935-48)
1873 Ford Madox Ford England, novelist/editor (The Inheritors)
1863 Padé, mathematician.
1859 Paul César Helleu, French artist who died on 23 March 1927.
1859 Ettore Tito, Italian artist who died in 1941.
1835 Casorati, mathematician.
1830 Jules de Goncourt France, novelist (Germinie).
1824 Thomas Starr King New York, Unitarian clergyman (Christianity and Humanity).
1819 Jean Baptiste van Moer, Belgian artist who died on 06 December 1884.
1810 Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, militar y político, regente de España.
1807 John Greenleaf Whittier US, poet (Snow-bound), abolitionist, reformer, and founder of the Liberal Party.
1797 Joseph Henry, US physicist who died on 13 May 1878. He discovered electromagnetic induction one year before Michael Faraday [22 Sep 1791 25 Aug 1867], who in 1831 was the first to publish his results and hence is usually given the credit. In 1893 the unit of electric inductive resistance was named the henry (The magnetic flux of 1 volt second through a circuit per volt of current flowing in the circuit that is producing the magnetic field).
1778 Sir Humphrey Davy, English chemist who discovered several chemical elements and the anesthetic effect of laughing gas.
1770 Ludwig van Beethoven, músico alemán.
1749 Domenico Cimarosa, compositor italiano.
1706 Gabrielle du Châtelet, mathematician.
1667 Jean-Baptiste Bosschaert, Flemish artist who died in 1746.