• First SEATO council meeting... • South Vietnamese advance stalls... • The Alamo is besieged... • Zola sentenced to prison... • Soviet aggressors state peace terms to Finland... • Mass deportation of Chechens... • Sub attacks California... • Coup d'état in Spain... • Kidnapping in Cuba... • Netscape security flaw... • A great Comanche dies... • Rotschild patriarch is born... • Italian Fascist party is founded... • Diesel engine is patented... • Famous Iwo Jima flag raising... • Clinton impeachment aftermath... • Réforme judiciaire en France... • Black civil rights leader is born...
| On a 23 February:
2001 In No. 00-5081 Elouise Pepion Cobell, et al., Appellees v. Gale A. Norton, Secretary of the Interior, et al., Appellants, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit rules in favor of the 300'000 Amerindians in a class action suit againsn the Department of the Interior, confirming the lower court decision requiring Interior to remedy the long-standing mismanagement of Amerindian trust funds. [Site of the Amerindian plaintiffs].
2000 El presidente de Mozambique pide ayuda para los más de 800'000 damnificados por las recientes inundaciones.
2000 Case against three men arrested for Walking
While Black is dismissed.
The Bill of Rights for Black MenAmendment I:
Congress can make no law altering the established fact that a Black man is a nigger.
The right of any White person to apprehend a nigger will not be infringed.
No nigger shall, at any time, fail to obey any public authority figures—even when beyond the jurisdiction of their authority.
The fact that a Black man is a nigger is sufficient probable cause for him to be searched and seized.
Any nigger accused of a crime is to be punished without any due process whatsoever.
In all prosecutions of niggers, their accuser shall enjoy the right of a speedy apprehension. While the accused nigger shall enjoy a dehumanizing and humiliating arrest.
Niggers must remain within the confines of their own neighborhoods. Those who do not are clearly looking for trouble.
Wherever niggers are causing trouble, arresting any nigger at the scene of the crime is just as good as arresting the one actually guilty of the crime in question.
Niggers will never be treated like full citizens in America—no matter how hard they work to improve their circumstances.
A nigger who has no arrest record just hasn't been caught yet.
1999 Clinton impeachment
(1) Matt Drudge Reports:
NBC WARMS UP 'JANE DOE' INTERVIEW; TIM RUSSERT PHYSICALLY SICK AFTER WATCHING BROADDRICK TAPES
NBC NEWS has taken its interview with Jane Doe #5 out of the freezer and has put it into the oven!
On Wednesday night at 8 pm ET [Family Hour?] NBC NEWS will broadcast an exclusive television interview with Juanita Broaddrick, a woman who has accused Bill Clinton of rape.
"This was the hardest day of my life since I lost my father in '71," Broaddrick told a producer from NBC NEWS after her five hour interview.
The interview was scheduled to air on Jan. 29, at the height of the impeachment trial in the Senate, but it hit resistance from NBC NEWS executives.
One month later, NBC NEWS has announced that it will now air that interview an interview that made one NBC NEWS superstar physically sick after he watched it!
The DRUDGE REPORT has learned that NBC NEWS Washington Bureau chief Tim Russert got sick to his stomach when he viewed the five hour session between NBC NEWS reporter Lisa Myers and Broaddrick.
Russert told associates that Broaddrick's story left him speechless and upset him physically after he viewed raw tapes of the interview.
Broaddrick tells NBC NEWS, in graphic detail, how Bill Clinton raped her back in 1978.
Broaddrick had denied under oath that such an assault occurred.
Clinton lawyer David Kendall issued a denial last week.
"Any allegation that the president assaulted Mrs. Broaddrick more than 20 years ago is absolutely false," Kendall said.
"NBC is just trying to compete with the GRAMMY AWARDS," one White House source told the DRUDGE REPORT on Tuesday afternoon.
"This is a sweeps stunt!" charged another Clinton supporter.
NBC NEWS reporter Lisa Myers was en route to New York from Washington late Tuesday night, according to network sources.
Myers will anchor her Broaddrick story in-studio for DATELINE.
A source close to Broaddrick on Tuesday evening questioned if NBC NEWS has edited out the most dramatic moments of the interview.
"Juanita was told that she could view the finished product," explained the Broaddrick confidant.
"They've never shown it to her. We don't want it to be all on the editing floor with fill ins."
(2) President Clinton's $850'000 check to settle the Paula Jones sexual harassment case against him has been deposited with a federal court in Little Rock.
1999 A jury in Jasper, Texas, convicts White Supremacist
John William King of murder by dragging of a Black man, James Byrd Jr.
1998 La península de Florida (Estados Unidos) vive el peor temporal de su historia.
1998 El Ayuntamiento de Amsterdam inaugura las primeras tres "narco-salas" europeas, centros donde pueden acudir los drogadictos sin hogar.
1997 Scientists in Scotland announce that they have succeeded in cloning an adult mammal, producing a lamb named "Dolly." The animal seems normal, but would age prematurely. Un grupo de científicos británicos en Glasgow consigue crear por primera vez en la historia una oveja clónica, conocida como "la oveja Dolly", a partir de una célula de otra adulta.
^ 1996 Netscape security flaw found
Netscape confirmed that computer researchers at Princeton University had found a potential security flaw in Netscape's browser. Netscape Navigator supposedly prevented Java applets from connecting to computers other than the one that downloaded the applet from the Internet. But Princeton's researchers found a way to maneuver applets onto other computers in a network, which theoretically could give hackers the ability to read confidential documents. Netscape acknowledged the flaw, which it called minor, and agreed to post a fix on the Internet.
1995 Antoine Nduwayo appointed Premier of Burundi
1995 Dow Jones closes above 4000 for first time (4003.33)
1995 Iwo Jima memorial monument [photo >] is dedicated in Newington, Connecticut, in memory of the 6821 US military men who died in the Iwo Jima battle. (The national monument is in Arlington, Virginia, and was dedicated on 11 November 1954, to all Marines who have died in defense of the US since 1775. This one is the largest cast-bronze statue in the world: 10-meter-tall figures erecting an 18-meter-tall flagpole).
1994 La Duma (Cámara Baja del Parlamento ruso) concede la amnistía a Valentín Pavlov y todos los encausados en el golpe de agosto de 1991, que alejo del poder a Mijail Gorbachov.
1993 Gary Coleman wins $1'280'000 lawsuit against parents for high fees.
1991 US insists that Iraq publicly announce it is leaving Kuwait by 12 PM EST. It does not. So President Bush announces that the allied ground offensive against Iraqi forces had begun. (Because of the time difference, it is already the early morning of 24 February in the Persian Gulf.)
1991 Military coup in Thailand, Premier Choonhaven arrested.
1990 Las fuerzas armadas toman el poder en Tailandia, arrestan al primer ministro, Chatichai Choonhaven, suspenden la Constitución y controlan el país con la ley marcial.
1990 El Soviet Supremo de la República báltica de Estonia adopta el multipartidismo.
1988 Haim Herzog, elegido presidente de Israel (oficio principalmente ceremonial).
1987 Supernova 1987A in LMC first seen; first naked-eye supernova since 1604.
1985 US Senate confirms Edwin Meese III as Attorney General.
1982 Duros enfrentamientos en el norte de Siria entre la Hermandad Musulmana y las fuerzas gubernamentales del presidente Assad.
^ 1981 Spanish rebels storm parliament
In Spain, Lieutenant Colonel Antonio Tejero Molina and two hundred members of the civil guard burst into the Spanish parliament building in Madrid, firing shots into the air as they take the democratic government of Spain hostage. The right-wing military coup, organized by Tejero and Captain General Milans del Bosch of Valencia, follows elections that confirmed Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo of the Union of the Democratic Center as prime minister of Spain. Over the next eighteen hours, Spain's four-year-old system of democracy is held in suspense, as citizens watch the tense events unfold on live television. King Juan Carlos, who succeeded dictator Francisco Franco as the leader of Spain in 1975, appeals to the rebels and other military leaders to end the coup, and during the next morning, makes a forceful statement on national television against the rebels. At noon on February 24, the coup attempt is called off after eighteen hours, and Spain's fragile new democracy is preserved.
Intento de golpe de Estado en España. Unos 200 guardias civiles, al mando del teniente coronel Antonio Tejero Molina, irrumpen en el Congreso de los Diputados durante la investidura de Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo y Bustelo como presidente del Gobierno y mantienen secuestrados a los diputados más de 20 horas.
| 1973 Gold goes up $10 overnight to record $95 an ounce
1971 Lieutenant Calley confesses and implicates Captain Medina
1970 Guyana becomes a republic (National Day)
1967 25th amendment (Presidential succession) declared ratified
1967 US troops begin largest offensive of Vietnam War
1966 Aldo Moro forms Italian government
1966 Military coup in Syria ends Bitar government
1966 Premier Obote seizes power in Uganda
1966 The US military headquarters in Saigon announces that 90'000 South Vietnamese deserted in 1965, almost 14% of the South Vietnamese army and was twice the number of those who deserted in 1964. Fewer than 20'000 Viet Cong are estimated to have defected in 1965.
1959 Primera reunión del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos.
1956 20th Congress of CPSU closes in Moscow
1956 Russian party leader Khrushchev attacks memory of Stalin
1954 The first mass inoculation of children against polio with the Salk vaccine begins in Pittsburgh.
1954 Syrian army drives out President Adib el-Shishakli
1952 El Consejo de la OTAN aprueba un plan de rearme.
1950 Victoria laborista en las elecciones generales de Gran Bretaña.
1945 Operation Grenade General Simpson's 9th Army crosses Ruhr.
US Marines raise flag on top of Mount Suribachi at Iwo Jima,
famous photo [>] and statue (conmemorated as Iwo Jima Day).
The flag raisers: the front four are (left to right) Ira Hayes, Franklin
Sousley, John Bradley and Harlon Block. The back two are Michael Strank
(behind Sousley) and Rene Gagnon (behind Bradley). Strank, Block and Sousley
would die shortly afterwards. Bradley, Hayes and Gagnon became national
heroes within weeks. [a
whole site devoted to this] ^top^
During the bloody Battle for Iwo Jima, US Marines from the 3rd Platoon, E Company, 2nd Battalion, 28th Division take the crest of Mount Suribachi, the island's highest peak and most strategic position, and raise the US flag. Marine photographer Louis Lowery was with them and recorded the event. American soldiers fighting for control of Suribachi's slopes cheered the raising of the flag, and several hours later more Marines headed up to the crest with a larger flag. Joe Rosenthal, a photographer with the Associated Press, met them along the way and recorded the raising of the second flag along with a motion-picture cameraman.
Rosenthal took three photographs atop Suribachi. The first, which showed five Marines and one Navy corpsman struggling to hoist the heavy flag pole, became the most reproduced photograph in history and won for him a Pulitzer Prize. The accompanying motion-picture footage attests to the fact that the picture was not posed. Of the other two photos, the second was similar to the first but less affecting, and the third was a group picture of 18 soldiers smiling and waving for the camera. Many of these men, including three of the six soldiers seen raising the flag in the famous Rosenthal photo, were killed before the conclusion of the Battle for Iwo Jima in late March.
In early 1945, US military command sought to gain control of the island of Iwo Jima in advance of the projected aerial campaign against the Japanese home islands. Iwo Jima, a tiny volcanic island located in the Pacific about 700 miles southeast of Japan, was to be a base for fighter aircraft and an emergency-landing site for bombers. On 19 February 1945, after three days of heavy naval and aerial bombardment, the first wave of US Marines stormed onto Iwo Jima's inhospitable shores.
The Japanese garrison on the island numbered 22,000 heavily entrenched men. Their commander, General Tadamichi Kuribayashi, had been expecting an Allied invasion for months and used the time wisely to construct an intricate and deadly system of underground tunnels, fortifications, and artillery that withstood the initial Allied bombardment. By the evening of the first day, despite incessant mortar fire, 30'000 US Marines commanded by General Holland Smith managed to establish a solid beachhead.
During the next few days, the Marines advanced inch by inch under heavy fire from Japanese artillery and suffered suicidal charges from the Japanese infantry. Many of the Japanese defenders were never seen and remained underground manning artillery until they were blown apart by a grenade or rocket, or incinerated by a flame thrower.
While Japanese kamikaze flyers slammed into the Allied naval fleet around Iwo Jima, the Marines on the island continued their bloody advance across the island, responding to Kuribayashi's lethal defenses with remarkable endurance. On 23 February the crest of 170-m Mount Suribachi was taken, and the next day the slopes of the extinct volcano were secured.
By 03 March, US forces controlled all three airfields on the island, and on 26 March the last Japanese defenders on Iwo Jima were wiped out. Only 200 of the original 22'000 Japanese defenders were captured alive. More than 6000 Americans died taking Iwo Jima, and some 17'000 were wounded.
1945 Marines raise the flag on Mt. Suribachi On this day, during the battle for Iwo Jima, US Marines raise the American flag atop Mt. Suribachi, the highest point on the island of Iwo Jima and a key strategic point. An Associated Press photographer captured a restaging of the flag raising, and the resulting photograph became a defining image of the war.
The amphibious landings of Marines, after severe and relentless bombing of the island, began the morning of 19 February 1945, as the secretary of the navy, James Forrestal, accompanied by journalists, surveyed the scene from a command ship offshore. As the Marines made their way onto the island, seven Japanese battalions opened fire on the 9000 Marines headed for them. By that evening, more than 550 Marines were dead and more than 1800 were wounded.
In the face of such fierce counterattack, the Americans reconciled themselves to the fact that Iwo Jima could be taken only one yard at a time. A key position on the island was Mt. Suribachi, the center of the Japanese defense. The 28th Marine Regiment closed in and around the base of the volcanic mountain at the rate of 400 yards per day, employing flamethrowers, grenades, and demolition charges against the Japanese hidden in caves and pillboxes (low concrete emplacements for machine-gun nests). Approximately 40 Marines finally began a climb up the volcanic ash mountain, which was smoking from the constant bombardment, and at 10:00 on 23 February, a half-dozen Marines raise a US flag on the peak but not before disposing of a Japanese officer who attempted to prevent them. A pipe was used as a flag post. With Mt. Suribachi claimed, one-third of Iwo Jima was under American control.
Two photographers caught the flag raising on film: Marine photographer Sgt. Louis R. Lowery, and AP photographer Joe Rosenthal. Lowery's film was sent back to military headquarters for processing via ordinary army post and took a month to arrive. Rosenthal's snapshot was of a restaged flag raising, with a much bigger and more photogenic Stars and Stripes, enacted four hours after the original event. His film was sent by seaplane to Guam, and sent from there via radio-photo to the United States. The photograph so impressed President Roosevelt that he ordered the men pictured in it to return home for a publicity tour. "The raising of the flag on Suribachi means a Marine Corps for the next 500 years," predicted Secretary Forrestal.
| 1945 Canadian troops occupy Kalkar.
1945 Operation Grenade General Simpson's 9th Army crosses Ruhr.
1937 Guerra Civil española: concluye la batalla del Jarama, con un contraataque republicano dirigido por el general Miaja, que fue detenido.
1934 Coronation of King Leopold III of Belgium. Presta juramento el nuevo rey de los belgas, Leopoldo III.
1927 Coolidge signs Radio Control Act The Radio Control Act created the Federal Radio Commission, the forerunner of the Federal Communications Commission. The Federal Radio Commission was a temporary body established to assign radio frequencies and to issue rules and regulations to prevent interference between stations. The Federal Communications Commission superseded the Radio Commission in 1934 and has been heavily involved with the use of new communications technology, including digital television, ever since.
1926 Adquirida por unos joyeros franceses la corona de la emperatriz Catalina II de Rusia, puesta en venta por el Gobierno soviético.
1921 first US transcontinental air mail flight arrives in New York NY from San Francisco CA.
1918 Fundación del Ejército Rojo soviético.
1917 February revolution begins in Russia
1915 Germany sinks US ships Carib and Evelyn and torpedoes Norwegian ship Regin
1915 Tropas británicas ocupan el Africa Sudoccidental alemana.
1912 Comienza la guerra entre Italia y Turquía, con el bombardeo de Beirut por los italianos.
1909 Russian tsar Nicolas II dissolves Finnish Diet
1909 A postcard is mailed to Posey Cullen, Bethel College, Hopkinsville, Kentucky. Early in March 2001, the card is found in the Cincinnati Postal Service processing plant (built in 1938) when workers are moving machinery. Cullen graduated in 1910 from Bethel, a girls' college that closed in 1964.
1904 Japón impone a Corea un tratado por el que este país se convierte en protectorado del primero.
1904 Upon ratification of the Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty, control of Panama Canal Zone acquired by US for $10 million plus an annuity of $250'000 beginning nine years later
1903 Navy base of Guantanamo leased by Cuba to USA
1900 Battle at Hart's Hill, South-Africa (Boers vs British army)
1898 Zola is sentenced
to prison for his J'accuse...!
French writer Emile Zola's J'accuse...!, was printed on 13 January 1898 in L'Aurore. The letter exposes a military cover-up regarding Captain Alfred Dreyfus. Dreyfus, a French army captain, had been accused of espionage in 1894 and sentenced in a secret military court-martial to imprisonment in a South American penal colony. Two years later, evidence of Dreyfus' innocence surfaced, but the army suppressed the information. Zola charges various high-ranking military officers and, indeed, the War Office itself of concealing the truth in the wrongful conviction of Dreyfus. Zola was prosecuted for libel and and sentenced to one year's imprisonment. In July 1899, when his appeal appeared certain to fail, he fled to England. In 1899, Dreyfus was pardoned, but for political reasons was not exonerated until 1906. Zola returned to France in June 1900. Zola's intervention in the controversy helped to undermine anti-Semitism and rabid militarism in France.
Zola died unexpectedly on 28 September 1902, the victim of coal gas asphyxiation resulting from a blocked chimney flue. Some believe that fanatical anti-Dreyfusards arranged to have the chimney blocked.
Born on 2 April 1840, Zola grew up in poverty and twice flunked the baccalauréat. Employed in the advertising department of Hachette, in 1865 Zola published his first novel, La Confession de Claude, a sordid, semiautobiographical tale that drew the attention of the public and the police. Zola left Hachette.
In 1867 he published Thérèse Raquin, first published serially as Un Mariage d'Amour earlier in the same year. The sensual Thérèse and her lover Laurent murder her weak husband Camille. After marrying, they are haunted by Camille's ghost, and their passion for each other turns to hatred. They eventually kill themselves.
In 1868 Zola published Madeleine Férat, a rather unsuccessful attempt at applying the principles of heredity to the novel.
It was this interest in science that led Zola, in the fall of 1868, to conceive the idea of a large-scale series of novels similar to Honoré de Balzac's La Comédie humaine.. Zola's project would become the 20 volumes of the Rougon-Macquart series (deux branches d'une même famille: l'une issue d'un mariage, les riches et puissants Rougon, l'autre issue d'un adultère, les pauvres Macquart: les personages). La Fortune des Rougon was published in book form in October 1871. Zola went on to produce these 20 novels most of which are of substantial length at the rate of nearly one per year, completing the series in 1893.
Les Rougon-Macquart is "the natural and social history of a family under the Second Empire." (1852-70).
La Curée (1872)explores the land speculation and financial dealings that accompanied the renovation of Paris during the Second Empire.
Le Ventre de Paris (1873) examines the structure of the Halles and its influence on the lives of its workers. The 10 steel pavilions that make up the market are compared alternately to a machine, a palace, and an entire city.
Son Excellence Eugène Rougon (1876) traces the machinations and maneuverings of cabinet officials in Napoleon III's government.
L'Assommoir (1877) shows the effects of alcoholism in a working-class neighborhood by focusing on the rise and decline of a laundress, Gervaise Macquart.
Nana (1880) follows the life of Gervaise's daughter as her economic circumstances and hereditary penchants lead her to a career as an actress, then a courtesan.
Au Bonheur des Dames (1883) depicts the mechanisms of a new economic entity, the department store, and its impact on smaller merchants.
Germinal (1885) depicts life in a mining community by highlighting relations between the bourgeoisie and the working class. At the same time, the novel weighs the For a miners' strike and its aftermath in terms of those contemporary political movements (Marxism, anarchism, trade unionism) that purport to deal with the problems of the proletariat.
L'uvre (1886), explores the milieu of the art world and the interrelationship of the arts by means of the friendship between an innovative Impressionist painter, Claude Lantier, and a naturalist novelist, Pierre Sandoz. Unable to realize his creative potential, the painter ends up hanging himself in front of his final painting.
In La Terre (1887), a particularly grim portrait of peasant life, Zola shows what he considers to be the sordid lust for land among the French peasantry.
In La Bête humaine (1890) he analyzes the hereditary urge to kill that haunts the Lantier branch of the family, set against the background of the French railway systemt.
La Débâcle (1892) traces both the defeat of the French army by the Germans at the Battle of Sedan in 1870 and the anarchist uprising of the Paris Commune.
In Le Docteur Pascal (1893) Zola uses the main character, the doctor Pascal Rougon, armed with a genealogical tree of the Rougon-Macquart family published with the novel, to expound the theories of heredity underlying the entire series.
In the early '70s Zola expanded his literary contacts, meeting frequently with Gustave Flaubert, Edmond Goncourt, Alphonse Daudet, and Ivan Turgenev, all successful novelists whose failures in the theatre led them to humorously refer to themselves as auteurs sifflés ("hissed authors"). Beginning in 1878 the Zola home in Médan, on the Seine River not far from Paris, served as a gathering spot for a group of the novelist's disciples, the best-known of whom were Guy de Maupassant and Joris-Karl Huysmans, and together they published a collection of short stories, Les Soirées de Médan (1880).
As the founder and most celebrated member of the naturalist movement, Zola published several treatises to explain his theories on art, including Le Roman expérimental (1880) and Les Romanciers naturalistes (1881). Naturalism involves the application to literature of two scientific principles: determinism, or the belief that character, temperament, and, ultimately, behavior are determined by the forces of heredity, environment, and historical moment; and the experimental method, which entails the objective recording of precise data in controlled conditions.
Zola's final series of novels, Les Trois Villes (1894-98) and Les Quatre Évangiles (1899-1903) are generally conceded to be far less forceful than his earlier work. However, the titles of the novels in the latter series reveal the values that underlay his entire life and work: Fécondité (1899), Travail (1901), Vérité (1903), and Justice (which remained incomplete).
en-ligne en français:
Zola online in English translations:
The Death of Olivier Becaille
| Zola en allemand: Der
Emile Zola téléchargeable (choix de Acrobat, Claris, RTF) Au bonheur des dames / Germinal / J'accuse / Jacques d'amour / La bête humaine / La curée / La faute de l'abbé Mouret / La fortune des Rougon / La mort d'Olivier Bécaille / L'attaque du moulin / L'uvre / Naïs / Nana / Pour une nuit d'amour / Son excellence Eugène Rougon
| 1886 Aluminum manufacturing process developed
1886 London Times publishes world's first classified ad
1883 Alabama becomes first US state to enact an antitrust law
1870 Mississippi is re-admitted to US
1862 Federal troops occupy Fayetteville, Arkansas
1861 By popular referendum, Texas becomes 7th state to secede from US
1861 President-elect Lincoln arrived secretly in Washington DC to take office, an assassination plot having been foiled in Baltimore
1854 Great-Britain and Orange Free state sign Convention of Bloemfontein. por el que se aprueba la independencia del estado de Orange.
1847 Battle of Buena Vista, México; Zachary Taylor defeats Mexicans under Santa Anna.
1846 Polish revolutionaries march on Cracow, but are defeated.
During the Texas War for Independence, Mexican president and general Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna orders the first assault on the fortified Alamo mission in San Antonio, Texas, held by 144 Texans and Americans under the leadership of Colonel William B. Travis, Jim Bowie, and Davy Crockett. [flag flown by the Texans at the Alamo >]
1836 Santa Anna's Siege of the Alamo Begins Mexican President General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, leading some 4,000 Mexican troops, begins a siege of the fortified Alamo mission in San Antonio, Texas, held by 144 Texans and Americans under the leadership of Colonel William B. Travis, Jim Bowie, and Davy Crockett. After gaining independence from Spain in 1821, Mexico welcomed foreign settlers to sparsely populated Texas, and a large group of Americans led by Stephen F. Austin settled along the Brazos River. The Americans soon outnumbered the resident Mexicans, and by the 1830s, attempts by the Mexican government to regulate these semi-autonomous communities led to rebellion. In October of 1835, residents of Gonzales, fifty miles east of San Antonio, responded to Santa Anna's demand that they return a cannon loaned for defense against Indian attack by discharging it against the Mexican troops sent to reclaim it. Two months later, Texas volunteers commanded by Ben Milam drove Mexican troops out of San Antonio and settled in around the Alamo, a mission compound adapted to military purposes after the 1790s. In January of 1836, Santa Anna concentrated a force of several thousand men south of the Rio Grande and General Sam Houston, the commander of the Texas revolutionary troops, ordered the San Alamo abandoned. However, Colonel Jim Bowie realized that the Alamo's twenty-five captured cannons could not be removed before Santa Anna's arrival, so he remained entrenched with his men in order to give Houston time to raise a revolutionary army. On February 2, Bowie and his twenty-five men were joined by a small cavalry company under Colonel William Travis, bringing the total number of Alamo defenders to about one hundred and thirty. One week later, Davy Crockett arrived in command of fourteen Tennessee Mounted Volunteers. On February 23, Santa Anna and some 4,000 Mexican troops besieged the Alamo, and the Mexican leader ordered the former mission bombarded with cannon and rifle fire for twelve days. The next day, in the chaos of the siege, Colonel Travis smuggled out a letter that read: "To the People of Texas and All Americans in the World... I shall never surrender or retreat... Victory or Death!" On March 2, the last Texan reinforcements from nearby Gonzales broke through the enemy's lines and into the Alamo, bringing the total defenders to one hundred and eighty-five. The same day, Texas' revolutionary government formally declared its independence from Mexico. In the early morning of March 6, Santa Anna ordered the first assault on the Alamo. Travis's artillery decimated the first and then the second Mexican charge, but within ninety minutes the Texans were overwhelmed, and the Alamo was taken. All of the Texan defenders were killed, along with some 1,500 of Santa Anna's troops. The only survivors of the Alamo were a mother, her child, and an African-American slave. Six weeks later, a large Texan army under Sam Houston surprised Santa Anna's army at San Jacinto. Shouting "Remember the Alamo!" the Texans defeated the Mexicans and captured Santa Anna. Texas independence was won.
After gaining independence from Spain in 1821, Mexico welcomed foreign settlers to sparsely populated Texas, and a large group of Americans led by Stephen F. Austin settled along the Brazos River. The Americans soon outnumbered the resident Mexicans, and by the 1830s, attempts by the Mexican government to regulate these semi-autonomous communities were, in their opinion, against the 1824 Mexican constitution, and led them to rebellion. In October of 1835, residents of Gonzales, fifty miles east of San Antonio, responded to Santa Anna’s demand that they return a cannon loaned for defense against Indian attack by discharging it against the Mexican troops sent to reclaim it.
Two months later, Texas volunteers commanded by Ben Milam drove Mexican troops out of San Antonio and settled in around the Alamo, a mission compound adapted to military purposes after the 1790s.
In January of 1836, Santa Anna concentrated a force of several thousand men south of the Rio Grande and General Sam Houston, the commander of the Texas revolutionary troops, ordered the Alamo abandoned.
However, Colonel Jim Bowie realized that the Alamo’s twenty-five captured cannons could not be removed before Santa Anna’s arrival, so he remained entrenched with his men in order to give Houston time to raise a revolutionary army. On February 2, Bowie and his twenty-five men were joined by a small cavalry company under Colonel William Travis, bringing the total number of Alamo defenders to about one hundred and thirty. One week later, Davy Crockett arrived in command of fourteen Tennessee Mounted Volunteers.
On February 23, Santa Anna and some 4000 Mexican troops besieged the Alamo, and the Mexican leader ordered the former mission bombarded with cannon and rifle fire for twelve days. The next day, in the chaos of the siege, Colonel Travis smuggled out a letter that read:
In the early morning of 06 March, Santa Anna ordered the first assault on the Alamo. Travis’s artillery decimated the first and then the second Mexican charge, but within ninety minutes the Texans were overwhelmed, and the Alamo was taken. All 188 Texan defenders were killed, along with some 1544 of Santa Anna’s troops. The only survivors of the Alamo were a mother, her child, and an African-American slave.
Six weeks later, a large Texan army under Sam Houston surprised Santa Anna’s army at San Jacinto. Shouting "Remember the Alamo!" the Texans defeated the Mexicans and captured Santa Anna. Texas independence was won.
| 1820 Cato Street conspiracy uncovered.
1804 Conspirators against Napoleon, for restoration of Louis XVIII.
1778 Baron von Steuben joins the Continental Army at Valley Forge.
1689 Dutch prince William III proclaimed king of England. 1660 Charles XI becomes king of Sweden
1574 France begins 5th Holy War against Huguenots
1455 Johannes Gutenberg prints first book, the Bible (estimated date)
0303 Emperor Diocletian orders general persecution of Christians
which occurred on a February 23:
2003 Doron Lev, 19 [photo >], Israeli sergeant of the Shimshon unit who was bringing coffee to soldiers in a guardtower (without wearing a bulletproof vest), from a single shot in the back by a sniper of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, at the Israeli headquarters in Gaza, which are frequently fired upon from Khan Yunis, a few hundred meters away.
2003 Ahmed Afuna, 15, at about 02:00 (00:00 UT), when Israeli troops blow up the Beit Hanoun, West Bank, house of Abdullah Saba, whose son was killed on 21 February 2003 while attempting to attack Israeli troops.
2003 Mahmoud Hawila, 27; and Muhammed Kahalot, 22; Palestinians, by gunfire from Israeli troops who start an incursion into Beit Hanoun, West Bank, at 01:45, with two dozen tanks, two armored bulldozers, and three attack helicopters.
2003 Nasser Jaara, 14, Palestinian, of wound suffered the previous day from Israeli gunfire in the casbah of Nablus, West Bank.
2003 “Robert King Merton”, born Meyer R. Scholnick on 04 July 1910, US sociologist who invented focus groups and terms such as “self~fulfulling prophecy” and “role models”. There is no Nobel Prize in sociology, but Robert C. Merton [31 Jul 1944~], his son, shared the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1997. R. K. Merton is the author of On the Shoulders of Giants — On Social Structure and Science (Sep 1996) — Sociology of Science — Science Technology and Society in Seventeenth Century England — Social Research and the Practicing Professions — Social Structure and Anomie — Puritanism, Pietism, and Science — The Role-Set: Problems in Sociological Theory — The Travels and Adventures of Serendipity (2003)
2001 Christopher Divis, Nick Bourdakis, Ruth Levy, Elie Isreal (two students at UC Santa Barbara students, a Santa Barbara City College student, and a friend visiting from the San Francisco area), by David Edward Attias, 18, a student at the University of California Santa Barbara, ramming his Saab sedan at close to 100 km/h into a crowd of college-age pedestrians on Sabado Tarde Road in the Isla Vista area of Santa Barbara. Mentally ill Attias, who had stopped taking his medication (but used hallucinogenic illegal drugs), then shouts that he is the "angel of death.". On 12 June 2002 Attias would be found guilty of four counts of second degree murder. But on 20 June 2002 the jury would decide that he was insane at the time of the attack, so that he would go to a hospital instead of a prison.
2001 Alexandr Terekhov, animal trainer crushed by elephant in its pen after the evening performance at Moscow's Durov's Little Corner animal theater.
1997 A person and a Palestinian man who shoots himself after firing at people on the observation deck of New York City's Empire State Building. Six persons are wounded.
1996 Saddam Kamel al-Majid and Lt. Gen. Hussein Kamel al-Majid, brothers, sons-in-law of Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein, killed by Saddam Hussein's clan men. The brothers and their wives had defected in August 1995 (staying in Jordan) and had returned to Iraq three days earlier, lured back by Saddam Hussein's promise of immunity. Two of their attackers die in the shoot-out and would be given the next day in Baghdad a staged funeral as heroes and martyrs. Saddam Hussein's wife protests bitterly against the murders of the sons-in-law, so she is placed under house arrest.
1996 Tosca Dieperink, 39, Dutch tourist, in a holdup at a Miami service station. Two men later pleaded guilty to the slaying and were sentenced to prison.
1990 José Napoleón Duarte, 64, former President of Salvador (1984-89)
1984 Enrique Casas, senador socialista y parlamentario vasco, asesinado por ETA en San Sebastián.
1969 Abd al-Aziz Abd al-Rahman al-Faisal al-Saud, 67, King of Saudi Arabia
1966 Melchor Fernández Almagro, historiador español.
1958 Carlos Sáenz de Tejada, pintor español.
1955 Paul Claudel, 86, French poet/playwright (L'otage)
1945 Aleksei Tolstoi, 62, Russian poet/writer (Pjotr Peroyj)
1942 Stefan Zweig, 60, suicide, Austrian pacifist, writer (Die Welt von Gestern)
1934 Edward Elgar, compositor británico.
1924 Thomas Woodrow Wilson 28th US President (1913-21)
1922 Henri Landru executed for having 11 wives, in France
1917 Gaston Darboux, mathematician.
1916 entire French 72nd division, killed by French artillery, at Samogneux, Verdun
1887 Some 2000 in French / Italian Riviera earthquake. Se registra un terremoto entre Cannes y la ciudad italiana de La Spezia: graves daños materiales y numerosas víctimas.
1855 Carl Friedrich Gauss, 77, mathematician.
1848 John Quincy Adams, 80, 6th US President (1825-1829), of a stroke
1844 Duncan Gregory, mathematician.
1821 John Keats, 25, Romantic poet, of tuberculosis in Rome.
1800 (or 24 Feb 1800, or 30 Jun 1798) 23/24 Simon Julien de Parme, French artist born on 28 October 1735.
1794 Carlos José Gutiérrez de los Ríos conde de Fernán Núñez, político, músico y literato español.
1792 Sir Joshua Reynolds, British painter specialized in Portraits, born on 16 July 1723. MORE ON REYNOLDS AT ART 4 FEBRUARY LINKS Garrick between Tragedy and Comedy (1761) The Infant Hercules Strangling the Serpents sent by Hera Master Hare Captain Robert Orme Lady Cockburn and her Three Eldest Sons Lady Delmé and her Children Colonel George K. H. Coussmaker, Grenadier Guards
1766 Stanislaw Leszcynski duke of Lutherans/king of Poland
before 1667 Stanger Cornelis Stangerus, Dutch artist born in 1616.
1660 Charles X Gustaaf, 37, king of Sweden (1654-60)
1606 Santo Toribio Alonso de Mogrovejo, santo español.
1560 Lax, mathematician.
1554 Henry Grey Duke of Suffolk, Lady Jane Grey's father, executed
1468 John Gutenberg German inventor (boekdrukkunst)
1447 Eugene IV [Gabriello Condulmaro], 58, Pope (1431-47)
0155 Polycarp, 86, disciple of Apostle John and early Church Father, burned at stake
which occurred on a February 23:
1951 Mori, mathematician.
1947 Bowen, mathematician.
1945 Allan Boesak, South African activist.
1927 The US Federal Radio Commission, forerunner of the Federal Communications Commission, is created by a bill which President Coolidge signs.
1926 Fernando Vizcaíno Casas, escritor y abogado español.
1924 Allan MacLeod Cormack, South African-born US Nobel Prize-winning physicist who died on 07 May 1998.
1904 William Shirer, US journalist, historian, and novelist, who died on 28 December 1993.
1896 Tootsie Roll is introduced by Leo Hirshfield.
1881 Karl Jaspers, German psychiatrist and Existentialist philosopher who died on 26 February 1969.
1879 Norman Lindsay, Australian artist and novelist who died on 29 November 1969.
1863 Franz von Stuck, German Symbolist / Expressionist painter, sculptor, engraver and architect who, after being responsible for a Murderer, would get stuck with fame because of a Sin which followed his Sensuality. He would survive for many year the Kiss of the Sphinx, but eventually die on 30 August 1928. MORE ON VON STUCK AT ART 4 FEBRUARY LINKS
1863 Luigi Capotosti, Italian; ordained a Catholic priest in 1885; appointed Bishop of Modigliana on 08 April 1906 and consecrated a bishop on 31 May 1906; appointed Secretary of the Sacred Congregation for the Discipline of the Sacraments on 08 June 1914; made a cardinal on 21 June 1931; died on 16 February 1938; died on 16 February 1938..
1861 Mathews, mathematician.
1831 Hendrik Mesdag, Dutch painter specialized in Maritime Scenes, who died on 10 July 1915. LINKS Pinks in the Breakers Setting Sun (1887, 140x180cm)
1822 Boston is granted a charter to incorporate as a city.
1817 George Frederic Watts, English Pre-Raphaelite / Symbolist painter and sculptor, who died on 01 July 1904. MORE ON WATTS AT ART 4 FEBRUARY LINKS Paolo and Francesca Love and Death The Angel of Death Hope The Dweller in the Innermost
1801 Pierre Asthasie Théodore Senties, French artist.
1795 Antonio José de Sucre, héroe de la independencia hispanoamericana, venezolano.
1787 Hippolyte-Jean-Baptiste Garneray, French artist who died on 07 January 1858.
1779 Pieter Frans de Noter, Belgian artist who died on 22 November 1843.
1756 Juan Pablo Forner y Sagarra, escritor español.
1744 Jan van Os, Dutch artist who died on 07 February 1808.
1685 George Friedrich Händel, Halle, Germany, English organist and Baroque composer (Messiah). He died on 14 April 1759.
1670 Matthäus Arents Terwesten, Dutch artist who died on 11 June 1757.
1663 (Julian date: go to 05 Mar Gregorian) Samuel Pepys
1583 Jean-Baptiste Morin, mathematician.
1417 Paul II [Pietro Barbo], Italy, Pope (1464-71)