• Police and guerillas die in India... • Texas independence proclaimed... • Indépendance du Maroc… • Invasion suisse… • Tetra car's father dies… • USSRChina border fight... • Attempt to strengthen Prohibition... • Mort d'un poète lituanien de langue française... • Automatic streetlights... • Pioneer 10 launched to Jupiter... • John Irving is born... • D. H. Lawrence dies… • Sam Houston born... • Antitrust action against Microsoft... • Alexander Graham Bell is born... • Apple drops Newton... • Bombing of North Vietnam starts... • Bob Kennedy's plan to end Viet War... • US Supreme Court rules against steamboat monopoly... • Softcoal strike... • Battle of Bismarck Sea... • Doctor Seuss is born... • Tsar of Russia abdicates... • Ho Chi Minh elected President of Vietnam... • US importation of slaves ended... • Hayes elected US President by Congress... • Heroic Finland resists 94th day of Soviet aggression...
On a March 02:
2001 Yahoo stock (YHOO on NASDAQ) loses $2.75 to close at $21.69. On a split adjusted basis, it had traded as high as high as $237.50 on 03 January 2000, and as low as $1.32 on 22 September 1996. [5-year graph >]
2001 El Gobierno español aprueba por decreto-ley una reforma laboral que es rechazada por los partidos de oposición y las centrales sindicales. Las novedades de la reforma incluyen, entre otras medidas, el abaratamiento de las indemnizaciones por despido para los contratos fijos y las bonificaciones en las cuotas de la Seguridad Social para estimular la contratación de mujeres.
2001 Offensive South Dakota place names to be changed. ^top^
South Dakota Governor Bill Janklow signs a bill calling for changing place names which are "offensive and insulting to all of South Dakota's people, history, and heritage," such as Squaw Lake (to Serenity Lake) and Negro Gulch (to Last Chance Gulch), including 39 towns such as Squaw Teat Creek (to East Rattlesnake Creek) and Negro Creek (to Medicine Mountain Creek). Many of the new names have not yet been chosen.
Similar renaming measures have been adopted by other US states including Maine, Montana and Minnesota.
If they want to do this all over, there is still plenty of changes to make. How Far Is It? returns these, for example:
2000: Former Chilean dictator General Augusto Pinochet left Britain for his homeland, hours after he was ruled mentally unfit to stand trial on charges of human rights abuses.
| 2000 A federal jury in Washington DC convicts Maria
Hsia, a friend and political supporter of Vice President Al Gore, for arranging
more than $100'000 in illegal donations during the 1996 presidential campaign.
Hsia would be sentenced to three months of home confinement.
2000 El General Augusto José Ramó Pinochet Ugarte es puesto en libertad, después de 503 días de detención en Londres acusado de genocidio. La decisión de su liberación se debió a la consideración de que no estaba físicamente capacitado para afrontar un juicio de extradición, que solicitaba España.
1998 El presidente del Gobierno central de Nicaragua, Arnold Alemán, alcanza una victoria muy ajustada en las elecciones parlamentarias regionales, que tuvieron una abstención del 50%.
1994 Sofía de Grecia Reina de España recibe el Premio Wiesenthal de Derechos Humanos por su compromiso continuo en favor de la tolerancia y de la lucha contra el antisemitismo y el racismo.
1991 The UN Security Council endorses allied demands on Iraq for a formal cease-fire.
1990 Greyhound Bus goes on strike
1990 El canciller Helmut Kohl acepta que no se modifique la frontera alemana con Polonia.
1989 La CE adopta medidas drásticas para salvar la capa de ozono que rodea a la Tierra.
1989 Exxon Houston runs aground in Hawaii, spills 443'000 liters of petroleum
1985 El Presidente de Pakistán, Mohamed Zia Ulk Haq, anuncia el restablecimiento de la Constitución, derogada tras un golpe de estado.
1979 Over 1100 Christian organizations combined to form the Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability (ECFA). This oversight agency was created to demonstrate to the public that religious groups wanted to make themselves accountable for the funds they raise and spend.
1977 The US House of Representatives adopted a strict code of ethics. [ha!]
1974 US first class postage raised from 8 to 10 cents
1970 American Airlines' first flight of a Boeing 747.
1969 first test flight of the supersonic Concorde.
| 1950 Inauguración oficial del tren Talgo, con un viaje
de Madrid a Valladolid, con asistencia del general Franco.
1939 Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli is elected Pope. He takes the name Pius XII. Se elige al cardenal Eugenio Pacelli nuevo Papa, quien toma el nombre de Pío XII. Es su 63º cumpleaños.
1938 Trials of Soviet leaders begins in the Soviet Union Tercer proceso de Moscú, llamado "proceso al bloque de derechistas y trostkistas", entre los que figuran Bujarin y Rakovski.
1930 En France, Tardieu redevient Président du Conseil. Nommé en novembre 1929 Président du Conseil, il avait été renversé en février 1930. En dépit d'une intelligence brillante, il envisage une politique accompagnée par la prospérité et ne discerne pas la crise qui couve.
1930 En su artículo "El vértigo del éxito", Josif Stalin ordena poner freno a la colectivización de las tierras en la URSS.
1919 Se inaugura en Moscú el primer Congreso de la Internacional Comunista (Komintern).
1917 Jones Act: Puerto Rico territory created. Puerto Ricans are granted US citizenship. El Congreso de EEUU elabora la Ley Jones, por la que Puerto Rico pasa a ser territorio de los Estados Unidos, "organizado pero no incorporado", y los puertorriqueños obtienen la nacionalidad estadounidense.
1912 Se declara obligatoria la lectura de El Quijote en las escuelas públicas españolas.
1899 President William McKinley signs legislation creating Mount Rainier National Park in central Washington. The nearly 1000-square-kilometer area of pristine forests and spectacular alpine scenery is the fifth national park designated by Congress.
1896 Battle of Aduwa, Abyssinia (Ethiopia) defeats invading Italians.
1893 first US federal railroad legislation passed; required safety features.
US Congress assigns US presidency to Hayes; Reconstruction ends
Congress accepts an electoral commission’s decision that Republican Rutherford B. Hayes won the disputed presidential election of the previous November, and only three days later, Hayes is inaugurated as president. One of President Hayes’s first acts is to end the federal military occupation of the South and to recognize Democratic control over the region, bringing the Reconstruction era to a close. On November 7, 1876, Democratic presidential candidate Samuel J. Tilden received an electoral majority over Hayes, although the returns of nineteen electoral votes in three Southern states still under Republican rule, Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina, along with one vote in Oregon, were still in dispute.
For the first time in US history, Congress established a special electoral commission to decide the disputed presidential election, made up five members from each house of Congress and five members from the Supreme Court. The commission, divided along party lines, voted along party lines, until late February of 1877, when some of the Democrats began to support Hayes’s claim. Although no bargain was publicly revealed, it is likely that the Democrats were assured of a conciliatory attitude toward the South under a Hayes administration.
All disputed votes were awarded to Hayes, giving him a bare majority over Tilden, and on 02 March Congress approved the decision. Shortly after Hayes was inaugurated, the Republican Party’s radical Reconstruction policies, which dominated Southern politics for nearly a decade, all but collapsed. The Southern Republican Party vanished as Southern state governments effectively nullified the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, stripping southern African Americans of the right to vote. It would be nearly a century before the nation would again attempt to restore the political agenda of Reconstruction, and establish equal rights for all the people of the South.
Congress accepts an electoral commission's decision that Republican Rutherford B. Hayes won the disputed presidential election of the previous November. Three days later, Hayes was inaugurated as the 19th US president. The result was greeted with outrage by some Northern Democrats, who thereafter referred to Hayes as "His Fraudulency." One of President Hayes' first acts was to end the federal military occupation of the South and to recognize Democratic control over the region, thus bringing the Reconstruction era to a close.
On November 7, 1876, Democratic presidential candidate Samuel J. Tilden received more popular votes than Hayes, and early returns indicated a Democratic victory in the electoral college as well. However, Republicans refused to concede on the grounds that returns from Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina were still in dispute, and because a presidential elector in Oregon, who voted for Hayes, was found ineligible. The Oregon elector, John Watts, served in the appointive position of postmaster for one week after learning he was chosen to be an elector. Although he resigned well before the December electoral vote, Democrats claimed he violated the constitutional clause that no elected or appointed official may serve as a presidential elector.
A candidate needed 185 electoral votes to win, and with these 20 electoral votes still undecided Tilden had 184 votes to Hayes' 165 votes. Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina each sent two sets of electors to the electoral college, and the Republicans and Democrats each claimed the disputed Oregon vote. The Republican-controlled Senate and the Democratic-controlled House of Representatives could not decide how to count the votes, and a deadlock ensued. Finally, at the end of January 1877, Congress voted to establish a special electoral commission to decide the disputed presidential election, with five members from each house of Congress and five members from the Supreme Court. There were seven Democrats, seven Republicans, and one independent, Supreme Court Justice David Davis. However, before any voting occurred, Davis resigned from the commission when he was elected a US senator from Illinois. The justice who replaced him was Joseph Bradley, a staunch Republican.
The commission voted along party lines, with Hayes receiving eight votes to Tilden's seven, and Democrats in Congress launched filibusters and other delay tactics to block approval of the decision. Finally, in late February, some House Democrats began to support Hayes' claim. Although no bargain was publicly revealed, it is known that Southern Democrats were assured of a conciliatory attitude toward the South under a Hayes administration, including acceptance of Democratic governors and a withdrawal of federal troops. In the early morning of 02 March Congress agreed to award the contested votes to Hayes, giving him a bare majority over Tilden, and he won the presidency.
Shortly after Hayes' inauguration, the Republican Party's radical Reconstruction policies, which dominated Southern politics for nearly a decade, all but collapsed. If Tilden had been elected, however, the result would likely have much been the same. During Hayes' four years in the White House, the Southern Republican Party vanished, as Southern state governments effectively nullified the 14th and 15th Amendments, stripping Southern African Americans of the right to vote. It would be nearly a century before the nation would again attempt to establish equal rights for African Americans in the South.
| 1867 US Congress creates the Department of Education.
1867 Congress abolishes peonage in New Mexico.
1867 first Reconstruction act passed by Congress.
1865 Comienza en París la Conferencia Internacional para establecer un sistema de comunicaciones y de tarifas telegráficas.
1865 At Waynesborough, General Early's army is defeated.
1853 Territory of Washington organized.
1848 En France, la journée de travail légale est fixée à dix heures pour Paris et à onze heures pour la province, conformément aux recommendations d'une commission du travail présidée par Louis Blanc, créée juste après la révolution de février. En 1841, une loi avait "limité" le travail des enfants âgés de douze à seize à douze heures de travail quotidien.
During the Texas Revolution, a convention of Texans from the US meets at Washington-on-the-Brazos and declares the independence of Texas from Mexico. The delegates chose David Burnet as provisional president and confirmed Sam Houston as the commander in chief of all Texan forces. The Texans also adopted a constitution that protected the free practice of slavery, which had been prohibited by Mexican law. Meanwhile, in San Antonio, Santa Anna's siege of the Alamo continued, and the fort's 185 or so American defenders waited for the final Mexican assault. In 1820, Moses Austin, a US citizen, asked the Spanish government in Mexico for permission to settle in sparsely populated Texas. Land was granted, but Austin died soon thereafter, so his son, Stephen F. Austin, took over the project.
In 1821, Mexico gained independence from Spain, and Austin negotiated a contract with the new Mexican government that allowed him to lead some 300 families to the Brazos River. Under the terms of the agreement, the settlers were to be Catholics, but Austin mainly brought Protestants from the southern United States. Other US settlers arrived in succeeding years, and the Americans soon outnumbered the resident Mexicans. In 1826, a conflict between Mexican and American settlers led to the Freedonia Rebellion, and in 1830 the Mexican government took measures to stop the influx of Americans. In 1833, Austin, who sought statehood for Texas in the Mexican federation, was imprisoned after calling on settlers to declare it without the consent of the Mexican congress. He was released in 1835. In 1834, Antonio López de Santa Anna, a soldier and politician, became dictator of Mexico and sought to crush rebellions in Texas and other areas.
In October 1835, Anglo residents of Gonzales, 80 km east of San Antonio, responded to Santa Anna's demand that they return a cannon loaned for defense against Indian attack by discharging it against the Mexican troops sent to reclaim it. The Mexicans were routed in what is regarded as the first battle of the Texas Revolution. The American settlers set up a provisional state government, and a Texan army under Sam Houston won a series of minor battles in the fall of 1835. In December, Texas volunteers commanded by Ben Milam drove Mexican troops out of San Antonio and settled in around the Alamo, a mission compound adapted to military purposes around 1800. In January 1836, Santa Anna concentrated a force of several thousand men south of the Rio Grande, and Sam Houston ordered the Alamo abandoned. Colonel James Bowie, who arrived at the Alamo on 19 January, realized that the fort's captured cannons could not be removed before Santa Anna's arrival, so he remained entrenched with his men. By delaying Santa Anna's forces, he also reasoned, Houston would have more time to raise an army large enough to repulse the Mexicans.
On 02 February, Bowie and his 30 or so men were joined by a small cavalry company under Colonel William Travis, bringing the total number of Alamo defenders to about 140. One week later, the frontiersman Davy Crockett arrived in command of 14 Tennessee Mounted Volunteers. On 23 February, Santa Anna and some 3000 Mexican troops besieged the Alamo, and the former mission was bombarded with cannon and rifle fire for 12 days. On 24 February, in the chaos of the siege, Colonel Travis smuggled out a letter that read: "To the People of Texas and All Americans in the World.... I shall never surrender or retreat.... Victory or Death!" On 01 March, the last Texan reinforcements from nearby Gonzales broke through the enemy's lines and into the Alamo, bringing the total defenders to approximately 185.
On 02 March, Texas' revolutionary government declares its independence from Mexico. In the early morning of 06 March, Santa Anna ordered his troops to storm the Alamo. Travis' artillery decimated the first and then the second Mexican charge, but in just over an hour the Texans were overwhelmed, and the Alamo was taken. Santa Anna had ordered that no prisoners be taken, and all the Texan and American defenders were killed in brutal hand-to-hand fighting. The only survivors of the Alamo were a handful of civilians, mostly women and children. Several hundred of Santa Anna's men died during the siege and storming of the Alamo.
Six weeks later, a large Texan army under Sam Houston surprised Santa Anna's army at San Jacinto. Shouting "Remember the Alamo!" the Texans defeated the Mexicans and captured Santa Anna. The Mexican dictator was forced to recognize Texas' independence and withdrew his forces south of the Río Grande. Texas sought annexation by the United States, but both Mexico and antislavery forces in the United States opposed its admission into the Union. For nearly a decade, Texas existed as an independent republic, and Houston was Texas' first elected president. In 1845, Texas joined the Union as the 28th state, leading to the outbreak of the Mexican-American War.
1819 Territory of Arkansas organized.
1815 Se inicia en Francia el período conocido como Imperio de los Cien Días, en el que Napoleón, liberado de la isla de Elba, retoma el poder.
1776 Americans begin shelling British troops in Boston
which occurred on a March 02:
2003 Mahmoud al-Hadi, 23; and Abed Rabbo al-Assar, 50, Palestinians, in Israeli incursion into Khan Younis, Gaza Strip, with helicopter gunships, tanks, and armored bulldozers. Al-Hadi was among the gunmen fighting the Israeli troops. Al-Assar is shot dead in his apartment by Israeli fire. 25 Palestinians are injured. The Israelis destroy 10 homes. The Reuters body count of the al-Aqsa intifada is now “at least” 1877 Palestinians and 706 Israelis.
2002 (Saturday) Tzofia Ya'arit Eliyahu, 23, and her son Avraham Eliyahu, 7 months, from Beit Yisrael; Lidor Ilan, 12, and his sister Oriah Ilan, 18 months, from Rishon Letzion, and five members of the Nehmad family, from Rishon Letzion: Shlomo, 40; his wife Gafnit, 32, their children Shiraz, 7, and Liran, 3, and nephew Shauli, 15; and Modammed al-Darameh, 19, Palestinian suicide bomber, at 19:15, in the ultra-Orthodox Jerusalem neighborhood of Beit Yisrael, at the end of the Sabbath. The al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claims responsibility, in reprisal for Israeli raids, still in progress, on the Balata and Jenin refugee camps in the West Bank, which have killed about 30 Palestinians.
2002 Moshe Dayan, Israeli policeman,. shot in the head, while riding alone on his motorcycle in the Judean Desert near the Mar Saba monastery in Nahal Kidron.
2002 More Muslims are Hindu mobs continue to rampage in parts of Gujarat.
2001 Mustafa Ramlawi, 40, mentally handicapped Palestinian from the Bourej refugee camp, shot by Israeli soldiers as he was trying to plant a bomb by a main road in the central Gaza Strip.
2002 Emil Sanielevici, 20, a White, on life support since being shot, in Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania, in a racist rampage the previous day by a Black, Ronald Taylor, 39, who killed two other Whites and wounded two more.
1998: 16 ethnic Albanians and 4 Serb policemen, in riot in Kosovo.
1962 Charles de la Vallée Poussin, mathematician
Day 94 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland. ^top^
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.
Soviet troops attack delaying positions on the Isthmus. Over 100 planes bomb Tampere. 70 buildings destroyed in Lahti.
Three Soviet divisions launch a massive general offensive.
The fiercest fighting is on the Karelian Isthmus, at Käremäenlahti to the south of Viipuri and in the Lyykylä sector east of the city. The Finns are forced to withdraw from the frontline strongholds.
Enemy strikes towards the islands of Tuppuransaari and Teikarsaari are supported by a massive artillery bombardment. A Finnish counterattack around midday is unsuccessful and Tuppuransaari runs out of ammunition. Both islands are lost to the enemy.
The enemy also manages to reach land on the western shore of Viipurinlahti bay.
In Ladoga Karelia, the Soviet artillery in Kollaa begins an intensive bombardment at 6.30 in the morning, followed by an assault with two divisions across the entire breadth of the Finnish positions.
Finnish reconnaissance planes have in the past couple of days observed firing stations for approximately 50 enemy artillery batteries in the centre of the Kollaa front. During the course of the day the enemy artillery in Kollaa fires about 30,000 rounds, against less than 1,000 on the Finnish side.
Despite the enemy's massive numerical superiority, the fighting becomes bogged down in trench warfare with very heavy casualties on both sides.
The enemy artillery at times reaches a rate of 200 rounds a minute.
Despite the extremely difficult conditions and the pounding it has taken from the air due to the Soviet Union's aerial superiority, the Finnish defence nevertheless holds firm.
The Russians also launch assaults with artillery and tank support on the River Aittojoki. The Russian assaults are repulsed.
In the north, the Finns defending the Kuusijoki line in Kuhmo are unable to withstand the Russian assault. The assault was preceded by an artillery bombardment of around 3,000 rounds.
In Salla, nine members of a company of Swedish volunteers are killed when the company is surrounded by the Russians. The enemy loses 200 of its own men.
Battle is joined at Löytövaara in Kuhmo.
In Ladoga Karelia, an enemy ski battalion is wiped out between Mustalampi and Lavajärvi.
Tampere is bombed by over a hundred enemy aircraft, including some fighters. Over 70 buildings are destroyed by Soviet bombers in Lahti.
Foreign Minister Tanner explains to the Parliamentary Foreign Affairs Committee why the Government has postponed acceptance of the Soviet Union's peace terms.
Sweden's Foreign Minister Christian Günther delays passing on Finland's answer to Moscow.
The Allies ask the Norwegian and Swedish Governments to allow their troops to pass through Norway and Sweden en route to Finland. Norway and Sweden refuse permission.
A battalion of Hungarian volunteers arrives in Finland.
The office of the Canadian Prime Minister announces there are no legal obstacles to Canadian volunteers participating in the war in Finland. The first group of volunteers boards ship in Ottawa en route for Finland.
A selection of events and documents on the history of Finland
Äärimmäisen vaikeissa olosuhteissa taisteleva suomalaisten puolustus kestää Talvisodan 94. päivä, 02.maaliskuuta.1940 ^top^
Kolmen neuvostodivisioonan massiivinen suurhyökkäys alkaa.
Kovimmat taistelut käydään Karjalan kannaksella Käremäenlahdella Viipurin eteläpuolella ja Lyykylän suunnassa kaupungista itään.Suomalaiset ovat pakotettuja luopumaan etulinjan tukikohdista.
Vihollinen hyökkää kohden Tuppuransaarta ja Teikarsaarta valtavan tykistökeskityksen tukemana. Suomalaisten vastahyökkäys puolen päivän aikaan epäonnistuu, Tuppuransaarella loppuvat ammukset. Suomi menettää Tuppuransaaren ja Teikarsaaren.
Vihollinen pääsee maihin myös Viipurinlahden länsirannalla.
Kollaalla neuvostotykistö aloittaa kiivaan tulituksen klo 06.30, jota seuraa kahden divisioonan hyökkäys koko puolustusaseman leveydeltä.
Suomalaiset tiedustelulentäjät ovat maaliskuun alussa todenneet Kollaan rintaman keskustassa noin 50 vihollisen tykistöpatterin tuliasemat. Päivän aikana Kollaalla vihollinen ampuu noin 30 000 laukausta. Suomalaistykistön laukausmäärä on alle 1000.
Vihollisen valtavasta ylivoimasta huolimatta taistelut jähmettyvätkummallekin osapuolelle erittäin kuluttavaksi asemasodaksi.
Ajoittain vihollisen tulinopeus on jopa 200 laukausta minuutissa.
Äärimmäisen vaikeissa olosuhteissa taisteleva suomalaisten puolustus kestää, vaikka sitä moukaroivat Neuvostoliiton ylivoimaiset ilmavoimat.
Venäläiset hyökkäävät myös Aittojoella tykistön ja hyökkäysvaunujen tukemana.
Venäläisten hyökkäykset torjutaan.
Suomalaiset lyödään Kuusijoki-linjalta Kuhmossa.
Venäläisten hyökkäystä on edeltänyt noin 3000 kranaatin tulivalmistelu.
Sallassa venäläiset saartavat ruotsalaiskomppanian, jokamenettää 9 miestä kaatuneina. Vihollisen tappiot ovat 200 miestä.
Taistelut Löytövaarassa alkavat.
Laatokan Karjalassa vihollisen hiihtopataljoona tuhotaan Mustalammen ja Lavajärven välisellä alueella.
Yli 100 viholliskonetta, mukana myös hävittäjiä, pommittaa Tamperetta.
Lahdessa sortuu ilmapommituksissa yli 70 rakennusta.
Ulkoministeri Tanner selostaa eduskunnan ulkoasiainvaliokunnallesyyt siihen miksi myönteisen vastauksen antamista Neuvostoliittoon on lykätty. Ruotsin ulkoministeri Günther viivyttää Suomen vastauksen lähettämistä Moskovaan.
Liittoutuneet pyytävät lupaa joukkojensa kuljettamiseksi Suomen avuksi Norjan ja Ruotsin läpi. Norja ja Ruotsi antavat lupapyyntöön kieltävän vastauksen.
Unkarilainen vapaaehtoispataljoona saapuu Suomeen.
Ulkomailta: Kanadan pääministerin toimisto ilmoittaa, ettei kanadalaisten osallistumiselle Suomen taisteluihin ole laillisia esteitä. Ensimmäiset vapaaehtoiset kanadalaiset astuvat laivaan Ottawassa päämääränäänkaukainen taisteleva Suomi.
Suomen historian dokumentteja
Det finska försvaret håller trots ytterst svåra förhållanden Vinterkrigets 94 dag, den 02 mars 1940 ^top^
Tre ryska divisioner inleder en massiv storoffensiv.
De hårdaste striderna förs på Karelska näset i Käremäenlahti söder om Viborg och i riktning Lyykylä öster om staden. Finnarna tvingas överge baserna vid den främre linjen.
Fienden anfaller mot öarna Tuppuransaari och Teikarsaari med stöd av en massiv artillerikoncentration. Finnarnas motoffensiv vid middagstid misslyckas, på Tuppuransaari tar ammunitionen slut. Finland förlorar Tuppuransaari och Teikarsaari.
Fienden lyckas stiga i land också på den västra stranden av Viborgska viken.
I Kollaa inleder det ryska artilleriet en häftig eldgivning kl. 6.30. Därefter anfaller två divisioner längs hela försvarsställningen.
De finska spaningsflygarna upptäckte i början av mars ungefär 50 fientliga artilleribatteriers eldställningar vid centrum av fronten i Kollaa.Under dagen skjuter fienden ungefär 30 000 skott i Kollaa. Antalet finska skott är under 1000.
Trots fiendens väldiga övermakt stagnerar striderna på bägge sidor till ett mycket slitande ställningskrig.
Fiendens eldhastighet är tidvis ända upp till 200 skott i minuten.
Det finska försvaret håller trots de ytterst svåra förhållandena och trots att det ryska överlägsna flygvapnet brassar på. Ryssarna anfaller också mot Aittojoki med stöd av artilleri och stridsvagnar.
Ryssarnas anfall avvärjs.
Finnarna drivs bort från Kuusijokilinjen i Kuhmo.
Ryssarnas anfall föregås av en eldförberedning med ungefär 3000 granater.
I Salla omringar ryssarna det svenska kompaniet som förlorar 9 stupade. Fiendens förlust är 200 man.
I Löytövaara börjar nya strider.
I Ladoga-Karelen förintas en fientlig skidlöparbataljon i terrängen mellan Mustalampi och Lavajärvi.
Över 100 fientliga plan, inklusive jagare, bombar Tammerfors.
I Lahtis rasar över 70 byggnader samman till följd av bombardemanget.
Utrikesminister Tanner redogör åt riksdagens utrikesutskott för orsakerna till varför man dröjer med ett positivt svar till Sovjetunionen. Sveriges utrikesminister Günther dröjer med att sända Finlands svar till Moskva.
De allierade anhåller om att få transportera sina trupper till Finland via Norge och Sverige. Norge och Sverige ger ett nekande svar på denna anhållan.
En ungersk frivillig bataljon anländer till Finland.
Utrikes: Canadas statsministers kansli meddelar att det inte finns några legala hinder för kanadensarna att delta i Finlands krig. De första frivilliga kanadensarna stiger ombord i Ottawa för att resa till det avlägsna krigande Finland.
Valda urkunder till Finlands historia
1938 Gabriele d'Annunzio, escritor y político italiano.
1932 Sor Ángela de la Cruz, escritora española.
1921 Thomae, mathematician.
1909 Henriette Ronner-Knip, Dutch artist born on 31 May 1821.
1909 John (or Joseph) Fowler, lynched in Early County, Georgia, accused of assaulting a White.
1895 Berthe Marie-Pauline Morisot, Mme. Eugène Manet, French Impressionist painter born on 14 January 1841. MORE ON MORISOT AT ART 4 MARCH her portrait by brother-in-law Edouard Manet. LINKS Au Bois de Boulogne Paris vu du Trocadéro Cache-cache Nice Little Girl (Nice: the city) La lecture
1885 Serret, mathematician.
1872 Henri Bataille, poeta francés.
1871 Antoine Léon Morel-Fatio, French artist born on 17 January 1810.
1869 Jan van Ravensway (or Ravenszwaai), Dutch artist born on 29 November 1789.
1855 Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia. His reign of autocracy and militarism was ended by defeat in the Crimean war.
1847 Louis Ducis, French artist born on 14 July 1775.
1814 reverend Matthey William Peters, British artist born in 1741.
1812 John Raphael Smith, English artist born in 1752. LINKS A Visit to Grandmother A Wife (stipple engraving in color) Shepherdess Mr. Bannister, Jr. and Mr. Parsons
1792 Carl Gustav Pilo, Swedish artist born on 19 March 1711 or 1712. LINKS Kirjailija Adam Lenkiewitz
1783 Francisco Salzillo, escultor español.
1751 John Smibert, Scottish US painter specialized in Portraits, born on 02 April 1688. MORE ON SMIBERT AT ART 4 MARCH LINKS John Nelson
| Births which
occurred on a March 02:
1937 José Francisco Guerrero, político salvadoreño
1937 Abdelaziz Buteflika, presidente de Argelia.
1931 Mikhail S. Gorbachev Soviet leader (1985-91) He introduced liberalizing reforms known as "glasnost" and "perestroika"
1930 Fernando Quiñones Chozas, escritor y poeta español.
1923 Time magazine.
1921 Jean Bedel Bokassa, presidente centroafricano.
1912 Hugh Dowker, mathematician.
Theodore Seuss Geisel Dr. Seuss,
in Springfield, Massachusetts ^top^
This date is commemorated in the US as Read Across America Day.
After attending Dartmouth College and Oxford University, he began a career in advertising. His advertising cartoons, featuring Quick, Henry, the Flit!, appeared in several leading American magazines.Dr. Seuss's first children's book, And To Think That I Saw It On Mulberry Street, hit the market in 1937, and the world of children's literature was changed forever! In 1957, Seuss's The Cat in the Hat became the prototype for one of Random House's best- selling series, Beginner Books. This popular series combined engaging stories with outrageous illustrations and playful sounds to teach basic reading skills.
Brilliant, playful, and always respectful of children, Dr. Seuss charmed his way into the consciousness of four generations of youngsters and parents. In the process, he helped kids learn to read. Winner of the Pulitzer Prize in 1984 and three Academy Awards, Seuss was the author and illustrator of 44 children's books, some of which have been made into audiocassettes, animated television specials, and videos for children of all ages. Even after his death in 1991, Dr. Seuss continues to be the best-selling author of children's books in the world.
He was the author of Land Before Time, The Cat in the Hat, The Cat in the Hat Comes Back, Dr. Seuss's ABC, Fox in Socks, Green Eggs and Ham, Hop on Pop, I Am NOT Going to Get Up Today!, I Can Read with My Eyes Shut!, I Wish That I Had Duck Feet, Oh Say Can You Say?, Oh, the Thinks You Can Think!, One Fish Two Fish Red Fish Blue Fish, Ten Apples Up on Top!, And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street, Bartholomew and the Oobleck, The Butter Battle Book, Did I Ever Tell You How Lucky You Are?, Dr. Seuss's Sleep Book, The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins, Happy Birthday to You, Hooray for Diffendoofer Day!, Horton Hatches the Egg, Horton Hears a Who!, How the Grinch Stole Christmas!, Hunches in Bunches, I Can Lick 30 Tigers Today! and Other Stories, I Had Trouble in Getting to Solla Sollew, If I Ran the Circus, If I Ran the Zoo, The King's Stilts, The Lorax, McElligot's Pool, My Book About Me, My Many Colored Days, Oh, the Places You'll Go!, On Beyond Zebra!, Scrambled Eggs Super!, The Sneetches and Other Stories, Thidwick the BigHearted Moose, Yertle the Turtle and Other Stories, You're Only Old Once!, Great Day for Up I, Myself Marvin K. Mooney Will You Please Go Now!, Mr. Brown Can Moo! Can You?, The Shape of Me and Other Stuff, There's a Wocket in My Pocket, Did I Ever Tell You How High You Can Count?: Learn About Counting Beyond 100 .
Dr. Seuss died on 24 September 1991.
| 1876 Eugenio Pacelli Pius
XII, 260th pope (1939-1958), is born on the 66th birthday of
Cardinal Pecci, archbishop of Perugia, who be elected pope Leo XIII 10 days
before little Eugenio's 2nd birchday. Pius XII died on 09 October 1958.
1864 Victor Léon Jean Pierre Charreton, French artist who died on 26 November 1936.
1824 Bedrich Smetana, Bohemia, composer (Bartered Bride, Moldau)
1822 William Louis Sonntag, US Hudson River School painter specialized in Landscapes, who died on 22 January 1900. LINKS
1810 Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Luigi Pecci, Leo XIII, elected 256th pope on 20 February 1878 and who died on 20 July 1903.
1733 Jean François Gille Colson, French artist who died on 01 March 1803.
1656 Jan-Frans van Douven, German artist who died in 1727.
1603 Pietro Novelli Monrealese, Italian artist who died in August 1647.