• McCarthyism rebuked... • Virginia Woolf's first novel... • Villa attacks Columbus, New Mexico... • US Marines continue to land at Da Nang... • US Army takes over from Marines in Vietnam... • US planes on the way to firebomb Tokyo civilians... • Slave mutineers ruled free... • White savages massacre Amerindians... • Battle of the ironclads... • Finns' heroic last stand on 101st day of Russian aggression... • Great Ukrainian poet and patriot is born... • Dentures... • Chinese puppet emperor... • US forces land in Vera Cruz... • Germany declares war on Portugal... • Mark I computer's inventor is born... • 65th US Treasury secretary is born... • Olds factory burns down... • Secret admirer murdered...
| On a 09 March:
2001 The price of Intel Corporation common stock (INTC) drops $3.81 to $29.44. It had traded as high as $74.88 (000828) and as low as $6.86 (960311) in the preceding 5 years. The computer chip maker had just lowered revenue estimates for the first quarter by about 25% and said it would cut its work force by 6% percent, or 5000 jobs.
[5-year INTC price graph >]
2001 El Consejo de Ministros aprueba por decreto la suspensión del servicio militar obligatorio en España a partir del 31 Dec 2001.
2000 La filial mejicana del banco español BBVA se fusiona con Bancomer para dar lugar al primer banco de México y uno de los principales de Latinoamérica. La nueva entidad, BBVA-Bancomer, suma unos activos de 36'000 millones de dólares (2,6 billones de pesetas).
1999 La policía francesa detiene en París, en una operación coordinada con la Guardia Civil española, a José Javier Arizkuren "Kantauri", jefe de los comandos de ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) desde 1994, y a otros cinco integrantes de la banda terrorista.
1998 El Grupo de Contacto, organismo que vela por la paz en la antigua Yugoslavia, apoya una misión mediadora liderada por el ex presidente español, Felipe González Márquez, para frenar la violencia en Kosovo.
1998 El criminal general chileno Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte, nombrado tres día antes "comandante en jefe benemérito", deja el mando del Ejército, tras 65 años de carrera militar, y estrena su nuevo cargo de senador vitalicio.
1995 El juez Baltasar Garzón decide enviar al Tribunal Supremo la denuncia de Luis Roldán Ibáñez en la que acusa al vicepresidente Narcís Serra i Serra, al ministro García Vargas y a los ex ministros José Barrionuevo Peña y José Luis Corcuera Cuesta de malversación de caudales públicos por el uso irregular de los fondos reservados.
1994 La Comisión de Derechos Humanos de la ONU condena por primera vez formalmente el antisemitismo y la xenofobia.
1994 Termina en Francia el proceso de la sangre contaminada de sida con la absolución del ex primer ministro socialista Laurent Fabius y su ministra de Solidaridad y Asuntos Sociales, Georgine Dufaux.
1991 Mario Alberto Soares toma posesión como presidente de la República de Portugal en su segundo mandato.
1989 Eastern Airlines files for bankruptcy.
1989 Soviet Union officially submits to jurisdiction of the World Court.
1986 Mario Alberto Soares asume la Presidencia de Portugal.
1984 La ONU aprueba una convención internacional contra la tortura.
1981 Auto de procesamiento contra el teniente general Jaime Milans del Bosch, acusado de delito de rebelión militar.
1980 El PNV (Partido Nacionalista Vasco) gana las elecciones al Parlamento vasco.
1979 First extraterrestrial volcano discovered (on Jupiter's satellite Io)
1975 Work begins on the Alaskan oil pipeline.
1961 Sputnik 9 carries Chernushka (dog) into orbit.
1955 Nikita Sergeievich Kruschev es nombrado secretario general del Partido Comunista de la Unión Soviética.
US planes on their way to kill Tokyo civilians by firebombing.
US warplanes launch a new bombing offensive against Japan. They are on their way to drop 2000 tons of incendiary bombs on Tokyo, with the intention of killing great numbers of civilians. After they reached their target shortly after midnight on 10 March, some 40 square kilometers in and around the Japanese capital were incinerated, and between 80'000 and 130'000 Japanese civilians were killed in the worst single firestorm in recorded history. Early on 09 March, Air Force crews met on the Mariana Islands of Tinian and Saipan for a military briefing. They were planning a low-level bombing attack on Tokyo that would begin that evening, but with a twist: Their planes would be stripped of all guns except for the tail turret. The decrease in weight would increase the speed of each Superfortress bomber-and would also increase its bomb load capacity by 65%, making each plane able to carry more than seven tons. Speed would be crucial, and the crews were warned that if they were shot down, all haste was to be made for the water, which would increase their chances of being picked up by US rescue crews. Should they land within Japanese territory, they could only expect the very worst treatment by civilians, as the mission that night was going to entail the deaths of tens of thousands of those very same civilians. "You're going to deliver the biggest firecracker the Japanese have ever seen," said US Gen. Curtis LeMay.
The cluster bombing of the downtown Tokyo suburb of Shitamachi had been approved only a few hours earlier. Shitamachi was composed of roughly 750'000 people living in cramped quarters in wooden-frame buildings. Setting ablaze this "paper city" was a kind of experiment in the effects of firebombing; it would also destroy the light industries, called "shadow factories," that produced prefabricated war materials destined for Japanese aircraft factories. The denizens of Shitamachi never had a chance of defending themselves. Their fire brigades were hopelessly undermanned, poorly trained, and poorly equipped. At 17:34, Superfortress B-29 bombers took off from Saipan and Tinian, reaching their target at 00:15. on 10 March.
334 bombers, flying at a mere 150 meters altitude, dropped their loads, creating a giant bonfire fanned by 30-knot winds that helped raze Shitamachi and spread the flames throughout Tokyo. Masses of panicked and terrified Japanese civilians scrambled to escape the inferno, most unsuccessfully. The human carnage was so great that the blood-red mists and stench of burning flesh that wafted up sickened the bomber pilots, forcing them to grab oxygen masks to keep from vomiting. The raid lasted slightly longer than three hours. "In the black Sumida River, countless bodies were floating, clothed bodies, naked bodies, all black as charcoal. It was unreal," recorded one doctor at the scene. Only 243 American airmen were lost — considered acceptable losses.
| 1933 The US Congress, called into special session by
newly inaugurated President Roosevelt, begins its "hundred days" of enacting
New Deal legislation.
1924 Italy annexes Fiume.
1923 Su enfermedad obliga a Lenin a abandonar definitivamente el poder en la URSS.
1917 Manifestación obrera en San Petersburgo, contra la que los cosacos se resisten a cargar. Alborea la revolución rusa.
1865 Battle of Kinston (Wise's Fork), North Carolina continues.
1864 US Grant promoted to Lieutenant General and appointed commander of Union Army
1862 Siege of New Madrid, Missouri continues
1860 First Japanese ambassador to US arrives in San Francisco en route to Washington.
1841 US Supreme Court rules on slave ship mutiny
At the end of a historic case, the US Supreme Court rules, with only one dissent, that the African slaves who seized control of the Amistad slave ship had been illegally forced into slavery, and thus are free under American law.
In 1807, the US Congress had joined with Great Britain in abolishing the African slave trade, although the trading of slaves within the US was not prohibited. Despite the international ban on the import of African slaves, Spain and Portugal continued to transport and accept captive Africans to their American colonies until the 1860s.
On June 28, 1839, fifty-three slaves recently captured in Africa left Havana, Cuba, aboard the Amistad schooner for a life of slavery on a sugar plantation at Puerto Principe. Three days later, Sengbe Pieh, a Membe African known as Cinque [drawing >], freed himself and the other slaves and planned a mutiny. Early in the morning of July 2, in the midst of a storm, the Africans rose up against their captors and, using sugar cane knives found in the hold, killed the captain of the vessel and a crewmember. Two other crewmembers were either thrown overboard or escaped, and Jose Ruiz and Pedro Montes, the two Cubans who had purchased the slaves, were captured.
Cinque ordered the Cubans to sail the Amistad east back to Africa. During the day Ruiz and Montes complied, but at night they would turn the vessel in a northerly direction, toward US waters.
After almost nearly two difficult months at sea, during which time over a dozen Africans perished, the so-called "black schooner" was spotted by the first American vessels. On August 26, the USS Washington, a US Navy brig, seized the Amistad off the coast of Long Island, New York, and escorted it to New London, Connecticut. Ruiz and Montes were freed and the Africans were imprisoned pending an investigation of the Amistad revolt. The two Cubans demanded the return of their supposedly Cuban-born slaves, while the Spanish government called for the Africans' extradition to Cuba to stand trial for piracy and murder.
In opposition to both groups, American abolitionists advocated the return of the illegally bought slaves to Africa. The story of the Amistad mutiny garnered widespread attention, and US abolitionists succeeded in winning a trial in a US court. Before a federal district court in Connecticut, Cinque, who was taught English by his new American friends, testified on his own behalf.
On 13 January 1840, Judge Andrew Judson ruled that the Africans were illegally enslaved, that they would not be returned to Cuba to stand trial for piracy and murder, and that they should be granted free passage back to Africa. The Spanish authorities and US President Martin Van Buren appealed the decision but another federal district court upheld Judson's findings.
President Van Buren, in opposition to the abolitionist faction in Congress, appealed the decision again and on 22 February 1841, the US Supreme Court began hearing the Amistad case. US Representative John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts, who served as the sixth president of the United States from 1825 to 1829, joined the Africans' defense team. In Congress, Adams had been an eloquent opponent of slavery, and before the nation's highest court he presented a coherent argument for the release of Cinque and the thirty-four other survivors of the Amistad.
On 09 March 1841, Justice Story delivers the decision of the Supreme Court that the Africans had been illegally enslaved and had thus exercised a natural right to fight for their freedom. In November, with the financial assistance of their abolitionist allies, the Amistad Africans departed America aboard the Gentleman on a voyage back to West Africa. Some of the Africans helped establish a Christian mission in Sierra Leone, but most, like Cinque, returned to their homelands in the African interior.
One of the survivors, who was a child when taken aboard the Amistad as a slave, eventually returned to the United States. Originally named Margru, she studied at Ohio's integrated and coeducational Oberlin College in the late 1840s, before returning to Sierra Leone as evangelical missionary Sara Margru Kinson. [Amistad Timeline]
| 1839 Se firman dos tratados entre México y Francia que
ponen fin a la Guerra de los Pasteles.
1820 Fernando VII jura la Constitución de 1812, obligado por el pueblo de Madrid. El rey vuelve a suprimir la Inquisición.
1780 Declaración rusa relativa a la neutralidad armada, para limitar la intrusión de la marina británica en los mares europeos.
1678 Rendición de Gante, defendida heroicamente por 500 españoles frente a 40'000 franceses.
1500 Zarpa de Lisboa la flota mandada por el portugués Pedro Alvarez Cabral con rumbo a la India, pero que descubrió el Brasil.
1497 Nicolaus Copernicus first recorded astronomical observation.
1496 Jews are expelled from Carintha Austria.
First day of the 10th baktun. ^top^
10 baktun / 0 katun / 0 tun / 0 winal / 0 k'in // 07 - ahaw // 18 - dzip / g6
which occurred on a March 09:
2002 Elkana Gobi, 20, Israeli corporal, from Neveh Dekalim, intentionally run over by an Israeli army jeep, in the evening. Near the Kissufim junction in the Gaza Strip. Palestinians had fired at the car where Gody and another Israeli were traveling, the passengers went out of the car to return fire. Israeli soldiers driving a military patrol jeep mistook the Israelis for Palestinian gunmen and ran over Gobi.
2002 Samer Awis, Fatah activist, by a missile fired from an Israeli helicopter in Ramallah, which was possibly intended for his brother Abed al-Karim Awis, one of the heads of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade.
2002: Limor Ben-Shoham, 27; Livnat Dvash, 28; Tali Eliyahu, 26; Dan Imani, 23; Orit Ozerov, 28; Avraham Haim Rahamim, 28; all 6 of Jerusalem; and Nir Borochov, 22; and Uri Felix, 25, both of Givat Ze'ev; Natanel Kochavi, 31, of Kiryat Ata; Baruch Lerner, 29, of Eli; Danit Dagan, 25, of Tel-Aviv; and suicide bomber Fuad Horani, an Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade resident in the Al Arroub refugee camp south of Bethlehem in the West Bank, at 22:30 in the Moment garden café in the Rehavia neighborhood in the center of Jerusalem, at the corner of Ben-Maimon Street across Aza Street from Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's residence. 54 persons are injured.
2002 Avia Malka, 9-month, from South Africa; Israel Yihye, 27, of Bnei Brak; and two Palestinian gunmen of Al-Aqsa Brigades, who, at 20:30, throw hand grenades and fire guns in the Jeremy Hotel in Netanya at people leaving after a traditional Shabbat hatan pre-wedding celebration. Israeli border policemen pursue and shoot the fleeing gunmen. Next to their bodies is found Yihye killed, possibly by police gunfire.
2002 Rana Jayousi, 21, and her baby about to be born, Palestinians, after being stopped by the Israeli soldiers at the Tolkarem roadblock, West Bank, and prevented to proceed to the hospital and ordered to return home.
2001 Stanko Miladinovic, Serbian police officer, by mortar shell fired by Ethnic Albanian guerillan into a police outpost in village of Lucane, near Kosovo, at 09:40.
2001 Iñaki Totorika Vega, agente de la Ertzaintza, asesinado en Hernani (Guipúzcoa) mediante una bomba colocada por ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) en el maletero de su vehículo.
1997 Christopher Wallace Biggie Smalls The Notorious B.I.G., a gangster-rapper, shot at a stoplight in Los Angeles, weeks before the scheduled release of his album Life After Death, possibly in retaliation for the murder of rival Tupac Shakur 6 months earlier.
1989 Robert Mapplethorpe, fotógrafo estadounidense.
1988 Kurt Georg Kiesinger, ex canciller de la RFA.
1977 One person killed by a dozen armed Hanafi Muslims who invade three buildings in Washington DC, taking more than 130 hostages. The siege ended two days later.
1943 Otto Freundlich, born in Germany in 1878, painter and sculptor active in France. Ascension (1929, 2 m high bronze sculpture)
Day 101 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland. ^top^
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.
Rear Line breached by two enemy divisions north of Viborg but main defensive line again in Finnish hands by midnight.
The Soviet Union is continuing its massive offensive against the Finnish backline positions. An attack in the morning by two Soviet divisions shatters the Finnish backline defences in Tali. The defending Finnish battalion loses 44 per cent of its strength in the savage engagement. Despite their heavy losses, the Finns still attempt a counterattack towards Tali at 2 o'clock in the afternoon, but without success. Tali village falls to the enemy.
In the evening the Finnish troops regroup in defensive formations on a line cutting through the southern head of Lake Leitimojärvi and the eastern head of Lake Kärstilänjärvi. Some of the men are in a state of panic. Divisional staff is forced to ask for additional military policemen to pick up deserters from the front line.
In Taipale, the Finnish troops manage to evacuate the Terenttilä stronghold without the Russians realising what is going on.
The Finnish force in Viipurinlahti bay withdraws from Lihaniemi promontory and Hapenensaari and Piispansaari islands. On the western side of the bay the Soviet troops sever the new trunk road from Viipuri to Säkkijärvi.
In the Kollaa sector in Ladoga Karelia the enemy offensive continues unabated, with strongholds changing hands several times during the course of the day.
One of Finland's leading gymnasts, Reserve Lieutenant Martti 'Make' Uosikkinen is killed in Kollaa.
By midnight the entire main defensive line is once again in Finnish hands.
Approximately 70 Finnish aircraft strafe enemy troops and columns in Viipurinlahti bay. In an ensuing dogfight, the Finns shoot down three enemy fighters. One Finnish plane is lost and three damaged.
Finnish pilots spot over 400 enemy trucks carrying infantry, and over 50 assault tanks on the roads to the south of Lake Suvanto on the eastern Isthmus.
The Finnish Government convenes at 5 o'clock in the afternoon to consider the telegrams sent by the delegation at the Moscow peace talks. The assembled ministers are shocked by the proposed loss of access to Lake Ladoga and the cession of the district of Salla in Lapland. The session is interrupted by an important telephone call from Commander-in-Chief Mannerheim, and reconvenes at 10 p.m.
The Government is able to draw on an assessment of the military situation prepared by General Heinrichs, commander of the Army of the Isthmus. Heinrichs' pessimistic assessment forces the Commander-in-Chief to conclude that there is no alternative but to accept the Soviet Union's peace terms.
Keskiyöllä päälinja on taas kauttaaltaan suomalaisten hallussa Talvisodan 101. päivä, 09.maaliskuuta.1940 ^top^
Neuvostoliiton suurhyökkäys jatkuu Suomen taka-asemaa vastaan. Aamulla kahden neuvosto-divisioonan voimin tekemä hyökkäys lyö hajalle suomalaisten taka-aseman puolustuksen Talissa. Ankaran taistelun jälkeen suomalaispataljoona kärsii 44 prosentin tappiot. Iltapäivällä klo 14 suomalaiset vielä yrittävät vastahyökkäystä Talin suuntaan, tuloksetta. Talin kylä joutuu vihollisen haltuun.
Illalla joukot saadaan ryhmitetyksi puolustukseen Leitimojärven eteläpään - Kärstilänjärven itäpään tasalle. Osa miehistä on pakokauhun vallassa. Divisioonan esikunta joutuu pyytämään lisää sotapoliiseja etulinjasta karanneiden pidättämiseksi.
Taipaleessa tyhjennetään Terenttilän tukikohta venäläisten huomaamatta.
Viipurinlahdella suomalaiset vetäytyvät Lihaniemestä, Hapenensaaresta ja Piispan-saaresta.
Länsirannalla neuvostojoukot katkaisevat Viipurin-Säkkijärven uuden maantien.
Kollaan suunnalla vihollinen jatkaa hyökkäystään ja tukikohdat vaihtavat päivän aikana useasti omistajaa.BR> Yksi maamme parhaita voimistelijoita, reservin luutnantti Martti "Make"Uosikkinen kaatuu Kollaalla.
Keskiyöllä päälinja on taas kauttaaltaan suomalaisten hallussa.
Lentorykmentti tekee konekivääri-hyökkäyksiä noin 70 koneella vihollisen joukkoja ja kolonnia vastaan Viipurinlahdella. Syntyneessä ilmataistelussa ammutaan alas kolme vihollishävittäjää. Yksi oma kone tuhoutuu ja kolme vaurioituu.
Suomalaiset lentäjät havaitsevat yhteensä yli 400 vihollisen kuorma-autoa kuljettamassa jalkaväkeä sekä yli 50 hyökkäysvaunua Suvannon etelänpuoleisilla teillä.
Hallitus kokoontuu klo 17 pohtimaan rauhanvaltuuskunnan lähettämiä sähkeitä. Rauhanehdoissa tyrmistyttävät yhteyden menettäminen Laatokkaan ja Sallan alueen luovuttaminen. Istunto keskeytyy ylipäällikkö Mannerheimin tärkeään puhelinviestiin. Hallitus kokoontuu uudelleen klo 22.
Hallituksella on käytettävänään Kannaksen armeijan komentajan, kenraali Heinrichsin laatima sotilallinen tilannekatsaus. Pessimistinen tilannetiedotus pakottaa ylipäällikön muodostamaan oman kantansa: rauhanehtoihin on suostuttava.
Vid midnatt är hela huvudlinjen igen under kontroll Vinterkrigets 101 dag, den 09 mars 1940 ^top^
Sovjetunionens storoffensiv mot Finlands bakre ställning fortsätter. På morgonen splittrar två ryska divisioner det finska försvaret av den bakre ställningen i Tali. Efter en förbittrad kamp lider den finska bataljonen förluster på 44 procent. Kl. 14 på eftermiddagen försöker finnarna än en gång gå till motattack i riktning Tali, men utan resultat. Tali by faller i fiendens händer.
På kvällen lyckas man gruppera trupperna för försvar på sektorn mellan Leitimojärvis södra ända och Kärstilänjärvis östra ända.
En del av soldaterna grips av panik. Staben för divisionen måste be om extra militärpoliser för att ta fast soldater som rymt från den främre linjen.
I Taipale tömmer man basen i Terenttilä utan att ryssarna märker det.
I Viborgska viken retirerar finnarna från Lihaniemi, Hapenensaari och Piispansaari.
På västkusten skär de ryska trupperna av den nya landsvägen mellan Viborg och Säkkijärvi.
Vid Kollaa fortsätter fienden att anfalla och baserna byter flera gången ägare under dagen.
En av Finlands främsta gymnaster, reservlöjtnant Martti "Make"Uosikkinen stupar i Kollaa.
Vid midnatt är huvudlinjen igen i sin helhet i finnarnas besittning.
Ett flygregemente på ungefär 70 plan beskjuter fiendens trupper och kolonn i Viborgska viken med maskingevär. Det uppstår en luftstrid där finnarna skjuter ner tre fientliga jaktplan. En av de egna planen förstörs och tre skadas.
Finska piloter upptäcker sammanlagt drygt 400 fientliga lastbilar som transporterar infanteri och över 50 stridsvagnar på vägarna söder om Suvanto.
Regeringen sammanträder kl. 17 för att behandla telegrammen som kommit in från fredsdelegationen. De mest upprörande punkterna i fredsvillkoren är att vårt land skulle vara tvunget att klippa av förbindelsen till Ladoga och överlåta området kring Salla åt Sovjetunionen. Sessionen avbryts av ett viktigt telefonmeddelande till överbefälhavare Mannerheim. Regeringen sammanträder på nytt kl. 22.
Regeringen tar del av den militära lägesrapporten som sammanställts av kommendören för armén på Näset, general Heinrichs. Den pessimistiska lägesrapporten tvingar överbefälhavaren att ta ställning: Finland måste godkänna fredsvillkoren.
| 1925 Willard Leroy Metcalf, US painter born on 01 July
1901 Olds factory
burns down. ^top^
A fire destroys the Olds Motor Works factory in Detroit, Michigan. Legend holds that Olds employee James Brady pushed a Regular Runabout, affectionately called the Curved Dash, out of the building to safety. Over the course of the previous year, Olds had developed over eleven models for cars, all of which varied greatly in price and design.
He had reportedly not decided which Olds models on which to focus the company’s production capability, but, as the first destroyed all but one prototype, fate decided that the Runabout would be the first major production Olds. The Runabout, a small buggy with lightweight wheels and a curved dashboard powered by a one-cylinder engine not dissimilar from today’s lawnmower engines, became the Olds Motor Company’s primary automobile. The Runabout could reach 30 km/h.
Olds later viewed the fire as a miracle, a sign that the Runabout would make his fortune. He expressed his enthusiasm for the little car, “My horseless carriage is no passing fad. It never kicks, never bites, never tires on long runs, never sweats in hot weather, and doesn’t require care when not in use. It eats only when it’s on the road. And no road is too tough for the Olds Runabout.”
In preparation for his success, Olds contracted other companies for parts to comprise his Runabout and in doing so he revolutionized the automobile industry. Previously, all cars had been built from start to finish in one site. Olds’s methods allowed for an assembly line in which parts were produced outside his factory and systematically assembled in his own factories. Among Olds subcontracted partners were the Dodge Brothers, Henry Leland who founded Lincoln and Cadillac, and Fred Fisher whose family produced bodies for GM. The Olds Runabout sold for $650.
| 1895 Leopold Ritter von Sacher-Masoch, escritor austríaco,
con cuyo nombre se asocia la palabra masoquismo.
1888 Guillermo I, rey de Prusia.
1885 Louis Haghe, Belgian artist born on 17 March 1806.
1869 Héctor Berlioz, compositor francés.
1851 Hans Christian Ørsted, físico danés, descubridor del electromagnetismo.
1820 Hermanus Numan, Dutch artist born in 1744.
39 children, 29 women, and 28 men, Amerindians
in the Gnadenhütten
It is the cold-blooded murder of 96 Ohio Amerindians, mostly Delawares (= Lenapes), by an American Revolutionary War officer, Captain David Williamson, and his militia at Gnadenhütten Village south of what is now New Philadelphia, Ohio. The Amerindians, who had been converted by Moravian Brethren and were peaceful Christians, were under suspicion because of their neutrality in the war. Williamson and his 90 volunteers, seeking revenge for Amerindian raids on frontier settlements, pretended friendship and disarmed the tribe; on the following morning they slaughtered the villagers in cold blood. Two scalped boys escaped to relate the incident.
In 1782, the village of Gnadenhütten had about 100 Christian Amerindians, mostly Delawares, there to gather crops from their fields. Although the Amerindians professed and practiced neutrality, the British, Americans, and other Amerindians did not trust those living at Gnadenhütten. The leader of the mission, David Zeisberger, had been tried by the British for treason. He had been cleared of the charges in a British court While the Amerindians were harvesting the corn, some white settlers were attacked. Other settlers blamed those at Gnadenhütten for the violence. The settlers organized and went to Gnadenhütten where they claimed to find clothing from the murdered whites. The Amerindians were confined to their church while the settlers voted on their fate. Less than 20 of the approximately 100 whites voted against the murder of the Amerindians. When the Amerindians learned of their fate, they spent the night praying and signing hymns.
In the morning, 9 March, the Amerindians are led from the church in pairs and their skulls are crushed with mallets. In all, 28 men, 29 women, and 39 children are murdered.
| 1748 Joseph Christophe (or Christophle), French artist
born in 1662.
1719 Peeter van Bredael (or Breda), Flemish artist born on 29 July 1629.
1692 Willelm (or Guilliam) van Heusch, Dutch artist born in 1638.
1688 Claude Mellan, French engraver born on 23 May 1598. LINKS — Self-Portrait (engraving, 1635) 49 other engravings at FAMSF
1680 Dirck Dirckszoon Bontepaert Santvoort (or Zantvoort), Dutch artist born in 1610.
1661 Cardinal Jules Mazarin, the chief minister of France. This leaves king Louis XIV in full control. político y cardenal que rigió los destinos de Francia.
which occurred on a March 09:
1994 Dubreil, mathematician.
1993 Zorn, mathematician.
1963 El Museo Picasso se inaugura en Barcelona.
1949 Isabel Tocino Biscarolasaga, política española.
1948 Emma Bonino, política italiana, comisaria de la UE.
1943 Bobby Fischer US, world chess champion (1972-75)
1942 Krawtchouk, mathematician.
1934 Yuri Gagarin, Russian colonel, test pilot, first man in space (a 108-minute trip with a 89-minute orbit on 12 April 1961). He died on 27 March 1968 in the crash of the new aircraft he was test-flying..
1931 León Febres Cordero, político ecuatoriano.
1931 Sleszynski, mathematician.
1881 Ernest Bevin, político británico.
1879 Otto Hahn, químico alemán, descubridor de la posibilidad de desintegración del átomo de uranio.
1874 John Duncan Ferguson, British artist who died on 30 January 1961.
1871 S. Granville Redmond, US painter who died in 1935 Flowers Under the Oaks California Oaks and Poppies
1873 Royal Canadian Mounted Police founded
1866 Bour, mathematician.
1856 Thomas William Roberts, British Australian painter who died in 1931. MORE ON ROBERTS AT ART 4 MARCH LINKS (Studio) (The Bridge) (Busy Street) (By the Shore) (Woman by the Pond) [the preceding titles are not given, so I made them up] Bailed Up Louis Buvelot (drawing)
1833 Jacques Français, mathematician.
1831 La Légion Etrangère se crea en Francia.
1814 (25 February Julian) Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko, Ukraine's national poet. ^top^
Born in Morintsy, Ukraine, Russian Empire, Taras Shevchenko would become the foremost Ukrainian poet of the 19th century and a major figure of the Ukrainian national revival, as well as an accomplished painter.
&n bsp; Born a serf, Shevchenko was freed in 1838 while a student at the St. Petersburg Academy of Art. His first collection of poems, entitled Kobzar (1840; "The Bard"), expressed the historicism and the folkloristic interests of the Ukrainian Romantics, but his poetry soon moved away from nostalgia for Cossack life to a more somber portrayal of Ukrainian history, particularly in the long poem "The Haidamaks" (1841).
When the secret Brotherhood of Saints Cyril and Methodius was suppressed in 1847, Shevchenko was punished by exile and compulsory military service for writing the poems "The Dream," "The Caucasus," and "The Epistle," which satirized the oppression of Ukraine by Russia and prophesied a revolution.
Though forbidden to write or paint, Shevchenko clandestinely wrote a few lyric poems during the first years of his exile. He had a revival of creativity after his release in 1857; his later poetry treats historical and moral issues, both Ukrainian and universal.
Shevchenko died on 10 March (26 February Julian) 1861, in Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
(in Ukrainian): Gaidamaky Kavkaz Son "Gori moi visokii..." Son "Na panshchini pshenitsyu zhala..." Son "U vsyakogo svoya dolya..." Selected Works
(in English translations): Selected poems
My Friendly Epistle
To the Dead, the Living, and to Those Yet Unborn, My Countrymen all Who Live in Ukraine and Outside Ukraine,
If a man say, I Love God, and hate his brother, he is a liar 1 John iv. 20
(In Ukrainian: I Mertvym I Zhyvym...)
Day dawns, then comes the twilight gray,
Gain knowledge, brothers! Think and read,
| Such is our glory, sad and plain,
The glory of our own Ukraine!
I would advise you so to read
That you may see, in very deed,
No dream but all the wrongs of old
That burial mounds might here unfold
Before your eyes in martyred hosts,
That you might ask those grisly ghosts:
Who were the tortured ones, in fact,
And why, and when, were they so racked?...
Then 0 my brothers, as a start,
Viunishcha, December 14, 1845
| 1809 Johan Hendrik Louis Meyer, Dutch artist who died
on 31 March 1866.
1791 First use of ether as anesthetic, by US surgeon George Hayward.
1749 Honoré Gabriel Riquetti, conde de Mirabeau, político francés.
1734 Francisco Bayeu y Subías, Spanish painter who died on 04 August 1795. cuñado de Goya. LINKS Olympus: The Fall of the Giants Saint James being visited by the Virgin with a Statue of the Madonna of the Pillar
1750 Johann-Friedrich-August Tischbein, German painter specialized in Portraits, who died on 21 June 1812 LINKS William V, Prince of Orange-Nassau
1621 Egbert Lievensz van der Poel, Dutch painter who died on 19 July 1664. LINKS
1454 Amerigo Vespucci explorer, This could be Vespucciland !
inventions that have not yet made the big time:
1) Inflatable dart board. 2) Glow-in-the-dark sunglasses. 3) A book on how to read. 4) Solar-powered flashlight.