BIRTH: 1886 RIVERA
Died on 08 December 1818: Friedrich-Heinrich
Füger, Austrian painter born on 05 November 1751.
Füger was a fahionable portraitist and respected master of his period.
As director of the Academy in Vienna he guarded the rigid system of Classicism
against the new tendencies. He was the master of several Hungarian painters
and he worked in Hungary, too. He executed portraits for the Haller family
and altarpieces for Pannonhalma.
János Batsányi (1808, 68x51cm) _ János Batsányi (09 May 1763 12 May 1845) was Hungary's leading political poet of the age of Hungarian Enlightenment during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic periods, and he was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Science. His political poetry was anti-royalist and advocated revolution and radical social change. His most famous political poem is A franciaországi változánokra (On the changes in France). He was imprisoned in Hungary for a year and in 1796 moved to Vienna and later to Paris, where the Austrians seized him after the fall of Napoléon and interned him in Linz for the remaining 30 years of his life. Batsányi also wrote fine lyric poems.
_ Batsányi János a magyar felvi-lágosodás egyik legjelentosebb költoje. A jako-binus mozgalomban való részvétele miatt börtön-büntetést, majd Napoleonnak a magyarokhoz intézett kiáltványa fordításáért számuzetést szen-vedett. Mind a költo, mind felesége, a népszeru bécsi költono, Baumberg Gabriella, viszontag-ságos életük során mindig a legjobb osztrák muvészekre; bízták arcvonásaik megörökítését. Így képmásukat Friedrich Heinrich Füger mellett Vinzenz Georg Kininger és Johann Niedermann is megfestette. A Füger mellképen a költoi hivatásra utaló attribútumok, a háttérben elhelyezett köny-vek nem játszanak túlságosan nagy szerepet, hogy a jellemábrázolás legfontosabb tényezoje az arc minél teljesebben érvényesülhessen. Ezt emeli ki haj szürkéje, a nyakravaló fehérje és a sárgásbarna drapéria is. A balról beeso fény a plaszticitást fokozza. A bécsi klasszicizmus jeles mestere Batsányi képmásával az egyik legszebb magyar íróarcképet alkotta meg.
Born on 08 December 1886: Diego María
Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la
Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez,
Mexican Social Realist muralist who died on 25 November 1957.
Diego Rivera produced murals on social themes. He was born in Guanajuato and educated in Mexico City. He studied painting in Europe between 1907 and 1921. Rivera returned to Mexico in 1921 and became prominent in the country's revival of mural painting. Believing art should serve working people and be readily available to them, he concentrated on creating large frescoes portraying the history and social problems of Mexico. He painted them on the walls of public buildings, including the National Palace in Mexico City (1929) and the Palace of Cortes in Cuernavaca (1930). Greatly influenced by indigenous Mexican art, Rivera's murals are simple and bold and, as social comment, have aroused much controversy among political and religious groups in both the United States and Mexico.
Diego Rivera was one of the greatest artists in the XXth century. Born in Guanajuato Mexico, in 1892 he moved to Mexico City with his family. He studied in the San Carlos Academy and in the carving workshop of artist José Guadalupe Posada, whose influence was decisive. Later in Paris, he received the influence of post-modernism and cubism, the mediums in which he expressed himself with ease. Diego Rivera with the use of classicist, simplified and colorful painting recovered the pre-columbian past catching the most significant moments in mexican history: the earth, the farmer, the laborer, the custumes and popular characters. Diego Rivera 's legacy to modern mexican art was decisive in murals and canvas; he was a revolutionary painter looking to take art to the big public, to streets and buildings, managing a precise, direct, and realist style, full of social content.
Agrarian Leader Zapata (1932) _ The legend of the Mexican Revolution, Emiliano Zapata (1873-1919), was a theme of several representations by masterful Diego Rivera during his pictorial trajectory. The first time he painted Zapata, was on his cubist work Paisaje zapatista (1915), then he appears on the murals of the Universidad Autónoma de Chapingo (1926-1927); after that he is seen as the great revolutionary figure of our nation on the murals he realized inside the Secretaría de Educación Pública in 1928. It can´t be forgotten the way in which the celebrated phrase "Tierra y libertad" was painted by the "sapo-rana" artist, as he called himself, on the murals of Palacio Nacional (1929, 1930 and 1935).
In this image [>], we see a Zapata painted in 1930-31, that guides his agrarian revolutionaries; this panel is part of the removable mural that Rivera realized for his individual exhibit in the Modern Art Museum of New York. Zapata appears with his white vestment in front of his revolutionaries; at his feet lies a fallen enemy, that no doubt is a property-owner. Emiliano Zapata with his left hand dominates a steed, that reminds us much to the horses of the Renaissance artist Paolo Uccello (1397 10 Dec 1475). We just need to remember that Riviera on his trip to Italy from 1920 to 1921, produced several sketches about the horses that are part of Uccello´s masterpiece The Battle of San Romano. By this work, Rivera also swears allegiance to the lands of South Mexico, that was the battlefield of the agrarian revolutionary, as he presents a splendid vegetation, a humid land and in the piece can be felt that freshness of the thickness when printing greenish tones of incomparable richness. Diego Rivera is one of the Mexican Art's pillars, without him, history would have been different.
Died on 08 December 1681: Gerard Ter
Borch II (or Terburg), Dutch painter born in 1617.
Ter Borch, Gerard was a Dutch painter, born in Zwolle, the son of a painter. He went to England in 1635, to Italy in 1640, and in 1648 to Münster, Westphalia, where he painted his celebrated Swearing of the Oath of Ratification of the Treaty of Münster (1648, National Gallery, London), marking the recognition of Dutch independence. Containing 60 likenesses, this work is a perfect specimen of miniature portrait painting and one of the most imposing historical works in Dutch art. From 1648 to 1651 Ter Borch was in Madrid. Despite his extensive foreign travels, he remained a painter of Dutch family life. He worked in the realistic tradition of Frans Hals, Jan Vermeer, and other Dutch painters, with careful attention to lighting and the rendering of fabric. He produced charmingly realistic portraits, such as Helena van der Schalke as a Child (1645), and small, intimate genre scenes, such as The Music Lesson (1672).
Gallant Conversation (The Paternal Admonition) giant reproduction (1654) (small reproduction) Version 1.
Paternal Admonition (1655, 70x60cm) Version 2 _ This painting having the popular title of Parental Admonition (link above to another version) was the subject of a charming passage by Goethe. In his novel Die Wahlverwandtschaften (Elective Affinities) Goethe notes the delicacy of attitude of the figures. He remarks how the father quietly and moderately admonishes his daughter who is seen from behind. The woman in black, sipping from a glass, Goethe interprets as the young woman's mother, who lowers her eyes so as not to be too attentive to the 'father's admonition'. This moralizing title, however, is without foundation and not in accordance with Ter Borch's usual themes.
The authoritative biographer of the artist interprets the picture in the opposite sense, as a brothel scene, assuming that the seated gentleman holds a coin in his right hand, offering it to the girl. In fact, the detail of the coin is not visible. (The coin is omitted in the engraving Goethe knew). In the Berlin version the passage is rubbed; a former owner may have had it painted over because she or he found it an embarrassing allusion. The Amsterdam version does not show the coin either, but its original paint surface is generally abraded; thus it is impossible to tell if it ever included the tell-tale coin.
Ter Borch's psychology is so delicate that the common scenes he repeatedly painted are raised to the level of highly civilized life. That Goethe's interpretation was possible at all shows the refinement of Ter Borch's treatment. Even if he made a mistake, Goethe had the right feeling for the way Ter Borch treated his subjects. Psychologically and pictorially he retains a sensitive touch and delicacy. The young woman is seen from behind; thus her face is averted. The only flesh visible is her neck, which is modelled with tender, silvery grey shadows. We have, however, opportunity to admire the silver-grey satin and black velvet of her gown.
Ter Borch's minuteness and nicety of handling concentrate largely on painting stuffs. Contrary to Vermeer's paintings, the dim light and the subdued chiaroscuro do not allow a forceful grasp of the whole field of vision. The light comes mostly from the front and stops at the glossy surfaces of the costumes and other textures.
Girl in Peasant Costume. Probably Gesina, the Painter's Half-Sister (1650)
Helena van der Schalcke (1648) giant reproduction _ (Small reproduction) _ In 1635-36 Ter Borch was in London where he acquired familiarity with the English court portraiture. During the 1640s he began to make extraordinary small and miniature portraits. One of the most touching is his tiny portrait of Helena van der Schalcke as a Child, which holds his own when hung next to the pictures Hals and Rembrandt made of children.
Memorial Portrait of Moses ter Borch (1669) The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster (1648) Woman at a Mirror (1650)
Officer Writing a Letter (51x38cm) _ It is thought to be an early work of the artist.
The Glass of Lemonade (1659, 67x54cm) _ The young woman depicted in the painting is Gesina Ter Borch, the artist's sister, while the young man is his brother Moses. _ detail (artist's brother)
The Concert (1675) _ Ter Borch's fame rests mainly upon the genre pictures he made after the middle of the 17th century which help define the subjects and pictorial schemes used by many artists of his generation and those who worked later. What sets him apart is his mastery of subtle narration which can charge every episode with subdued tension.
In contrast to Pieter de Hooch, Ter Borch maintains his fine taste and craftsmanship in his genre pieces until the very end. His contact with Vermeer in Delft in 1635 may have had an impact on the younger master. Then there conceivably was a shift; some of Ter Borch's late works seem to show a sign of Vermeer's influence. The fullness and clarity of the foreground figure playing the cello in the Concert at Berlin and the bright illumination of the room recall the Delft master; but it is also possible that the two artists arrived at similar solutions independently. In any event, the Ter Borch, the exquisite and minute treatment of materials, textures, and stuffs with the most intricate light accents is completely personal. The spatial relationships are not grasped with Vermeer's sureness, and the composition lacks the Delft painter's masterly consideration of the surface plane and the adjustment of the spatial accents to the overall design.
It will be noted that the figure playing the harpsichord has no Ter Borch character. Originally this figure represented a man. Ter Borch subsequently transformed the man into a woman, and a whimsical restorer, who worked on the picture at the end of the 19th century because of its bad state of presentation, changed the woman's gown and gave the model his wife's features.
A Concert (1675, 58x47cm) _ Ter Borch's fame rests mainly upon the genre pictures he made after the middle of the 17th century which help define the subjects and pictorial schemes used by many artists of his generation and those who worked later. What sets him apart is his mastery of subtle narration which can charge every episode with subdued tension. Few genre painters ever revealed more delicately the character of three individuals and their relation to each other as they ostensibly go about their business of making music in a drawing-room.
The Lute Player (31x27cm) _ The painting is signed on the spine of the book on the table: Gt. Borg FCT.
Man Offering a Woman Coins (1663, 67x55cm) _ This painting is euphemistically known as The Gallant Officer. In this mercenary love scene a soldier offers pieces of money to a young lady who is charming in type and dress. Her reaction is not surprise. The stuff painting is particularly excellent, as is the rendering of the facial expressions and the fine draughtsmanship and subtle lighting of the hands; also the still-life on the table. The apparent casualness is the result of careful thought and execution. The appearance of the tip of the woman's shoe peeking out from under the edge of her satin dress at the tremendous toe of the soldier's wonderful hip boot is as calculated as the color harmony of opulent browns, reds, buff, white, and silver.
A Young Woman Playing a Theorbo to Two Men (1668, 68x58cm) _ Several versions are known of the aristocratic interior by the artist. Many artists have painted beautiful satins and silks , but no one has ever depicted satin more exquisitely than the much-travelled Dutchman Gerard ter Borch. First trained by his father Gerard ter Borch the Elder, who had lived in Italy in his youth, the precocious young painter worked in Amsterdam and Haarlem before venturing to Germany, Italy, England, France and Spain. In 1646 he went to Münster, where he witnessed the ratification of the treaty of 1648 signalling the triumphant end of the Dutch wars of independence from Spain. In 1654, he married and settled down, permanently, in Deventer.
Whether miniature full-length portraits, or scenes of - supposedly - everyday life, ter Borch's pictures are distinguished by technical and psychological refinement. It seems curious, therefore, that he first specialised in guardroom subjects - although he brings even to the rowdy theme of garrisoned soldiers an element of stillness and reflection. His best-known paintings, however, represent elegant interiors with only a few figures, one of them usually a young woman in ravishing pale satin. Here, in an old-ivory bodice trimmed with fur and a white skirt setting off her fair hair, her shoe propped against a foot warmer, she plays the theorbo, an early form of lute, accompanying the man holding a song book. A man in a cloak looks on, and a spaniel seems to listen. Behind them is a curtained bed. Under the red Turkey carpet covering the table lies a single playing card, the ill-omened ace of spades.
The woman and the singing man each appear in other paintings by the artist, as do the silver box and candlestick - this is 'selective' naturalism, a scene composed from the imagination with ingredients assembled from drawings and studio props. In Dutch paintings of this type music-making is usually suggestive of love, while playing cards may be emblems of improvidence, and dogs and footwarmers can signify base desires. Yet it would be foolhardy to read this subtle painting, with its subdued tonality, as a scene of the demi-monde. We can never know what the relationships of these three figures are, and their thoughts and feelings, so delicately implied, are infinitely ambiguous. That, surely, was the artist's intention: to evoke imperfectly understood events, tantalising in their suggestion of mutability and transience.
Boy Ridding his Dog of Fleas (1665, 34x27cm) _ With Pieter de Hooch and Johannes Vermeer, Gerard ter Borch is one of the most outstanding of Dutch genre painters. Their paintings are based on close observation of their contemporaries and their surroundings, and yet elements from everyday life are often combined to suggest a particular mood, create an intriguing situation or point a moral.
Ter Borch, the son of a painter, was born in Zwolle and trained there in the studio of his father and also in the Haarlem workshop of the landscape painter Pieter Molijn. In his youth he travelled widely in Europe - to Germany, Italy, England, France and Spain. By 1654 he had settled in Deventer in his native province of Overijssel, where he achieved great professional success. He also became one of the town's regent class, serving as a councillor and painting a group portrait of his fellow regents.
In the genre scenes of his early years ter Borch depicted the life of soldiers but after settling in Deventer his paintings often showed elegant interiors in which small groups of figures talk, drink and make music. In this painting ter Borch shows a humbler setting and a mundane subject and yet he treats with the same delicacy and refinement the depiction of the differing textures of fur, hair, wood and felt. As with the painting of The Lace-Maker by Netscher, the painting gives an almost monumental quality to an everyday situation.
The Dancing Couple (1660, 76x68cm) _ This is one of an outstanding group of interior scenes with figures painted by ter Borch in Deventer in the years around 1660. He paints young men and women in elegant rooms, talking, dancing, drinking, making music and flirting. In addition to his skill in setting the scene, ter Borch possesses a remarkable technical gift, especially in the description of texture. No Dutch artist rendered satin more effectively than ter Borch nor was able to differentiate better in the medium of oil paint between the textures of a leather jerkin, a gleaming breastplate, a table carpet, a wooden lute and a brass candelabra.
In 1658 ter Borch was in Delft where he witnessed a document with the young Vermeer. This recently discovered evidence of a direct contact between the two artists confirms what has long been suggested: that the simplicity and restraint of ter Borch's style exercised an important influence on the Delft painter.
A Woman Spinning _ Ter Borch's fame rests mainly upon the genre pictures he made after the middle of the 17th century which help define the subjects and pictorial schemes used by many artists of his generation and those who worked later. What sets him apart is his mastery of subtle narration which can charge every episode with subdued tension. His rendering of simple themes, such as a woman spinning, shows the same knowledge of people as his more ambitious pieces.
Woman Playing the Lute (36x31cm) _ Formerly it was attributed to Gabriel Metsu. (1629 - 1667).
Woman Reading a Letter (1662, 79x68cm) _ Ter Borch frequently represented elegantly dressed men and women writing or reading letters, often, as here, in the company of servants, family members, or friends quietly awaiting the reader's reactions. Well-to-do burghers relished the aristocratic social ritual of the love letter.
Woman Washing Hands (1655, 53x43cm) _ At Deventer, Ter Borch developed an independent form of genre which in the meticulousness of its execution seems to be close to the Leiden variant. In connection with his remarkable talent for sensitive rendering of the texture of different fabrics, which in all of his mature paintings constitutes a major pictorial motive, Ter Borch showed a preference for subjects associated with Vanity or Luxury. This preference must have a partially aesthetic background, for these subjects allowed him to paint elegant interiors and richly dressed ladies, as in this picture.
The Family of the Stone Grinder (1655)